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    During the early years of the 20th century, as biologists strove to discover the processes governing plant succession, it was argued that a fundamental understanding would emerge not only by considering the suite of dynamic interactions among organisms but by expanding the conceptualization to include the influence of non-living factors contributed by climatic and soil complexes. This broader, integrative framework was described as an ecosystem (Tansley 1935). Nearly a century later, the ecosystem concept is recognized as an essential framework for assessing the long-run sustainability of natural capital within the United States (Anon. 2008) and around the world (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005).

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    Holmes, Thomas P. 2020. Opportunities for systematically valuing ecosystem service benefits produced by federal conservation programs. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review. 49(1): 178-191.


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    Anthropocene, benefit transfer, conservation, efficiency, working landscapes, publication bias, replication, resilience, targeting

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