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    Modified White's solution (1 g HgCl2/l H2O) is widely used to surface disinfest bark beetles of their phoretic fungi. We investigated the effectiveness of this solution at disinfesting adult Ips pini from its associated ophiostomatoid fungi. A treatment for 1, 4 or 8 min does not completely rid beetles of phoretic fungi, but does substantially reduce the amount of fungi they carry externally. Sterilizing with modified White’s solution caused limited mortality (< 16%).

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    Kopper, B.J.; Klepzig, Kier D.; Raffa, K.F. 2003. Effectiveness of modified White''s solution at removing ascomycetes associated with the bark beetle Ips pini. For. Path. 33 (2003) 237–240 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin ISSN 1437–4781

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