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    Author(s): Wesley G. Page; Bret W. Butler
    Date: 2019
    Source: Fire Management Today. 77(3): 16-19.
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.0 MB)


    Wildland firefighters work in complex and dynamic environments, with many dangers that pose serious threats to their safety. Falling snags and rocks, steep and rugged terrain, and rapid increases in fire behavior are just some of the dangers that affect wildland firefighters. Because of the many possible ways that firefighters have been or could be injured, various safety protocols have been developed in the United States to help mitigate the hazards, including the standard firefighting orders (McArdle 1957) and LCES (lookouts, communications, escape routes, and safety zones) (Gleason 1991). Two key elements of the safety protocols are the identification of escape routes and safety zones because past firefighter entrapments have repeatedly demonstrated the value of having a designated place of refuge to retreat to when fire behavior abruptly changes.

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    Page, Wesley G.; Butler, Bret W. 2019 Assessing wildland firefighter entrapment. Fire Management Today. 77(3): 16-19.


    wildland firefighters, entrapment, safety protocols, escape routes, safety zones

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