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    Author(s): S.M. Gende; R.T. Edwards; M.F. Willson; M.S. Wipfli
    Date: 2002
    Source: BioScience: 52(10): 917-928
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    PDF: View PDF  (994 KB)


    almon runs in the Pacific Northwest have been declining for decades, so much so that many runs are threatened or endangered; others have been completely extirpated (Nehlsen et al. 1991). This "salmon crisis" looms large in the public eye, because it has serious and wideranging economic, cultural, and ecological repercussions. Billions of dollars have gone into industrial and agricultural projects that alter regional rivers in ways that, often unintentionally, make them inaccessible or unsuitable for salmon. Recently, billions more have been spent in largely unsuccessful attempts to restore the languishing salmon runs (Lichatowich 1999). Moreover, enormous nonmonetary resources have been expended in assigning and denying responsibility for failed runs and debating the possible efficacy of various remedies.

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    Gende, S.M.; Edwards, R.T.; Willson, M.F.; Wipfli, M.S. 2002. Pacific Salmon in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem. BioScience: 52(10): 917-928

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