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    Author(s): Sharon E. Reed; Sylvia Greifenhagen; Qing Yu; Adam Hoke; David J. Burke; Lynn K. Carta; Zafar A. Handoo; Mihail R. Kantor; Jennifer Koch
    Date: 2020
    Source: Forest Pathology
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Northern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (1.0 MB)


    A foliar nematode, Litylenchus crenatae ssp. mccannii, is associated with beech leaf disease (BLD) symptoms. Information about the types of tissues parasitized and how nematode populations fluctuate in these tissues over time is needed to improve surveys as well as understand the nematodes role in BLD. During this study, the nematode was detected throughout the known range of BLD by researchers at both Canadian and US institutions using a modified pan method to extract nematodes. Monthly collections of symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves during the growing season (May–October), and leaves and buds between growing seasons (November– March), revealed that nematodes were present in all tissue types. Progressively larger numbers of nematodes were detected in symptomatic leaves from Ohio and Ontario, with the greatest detections at the end of the growing season. Smaller numbers of nematodes were detected in asymptomatic leaves from BLD-infected trees, typically at the end of the growing season. The nematode was detected overwintering in buds and detached leaves. The discovery of small numbers of nematodes in detached leaves at one location before BLD was detected indicates that nematodes may have been present before disease symptoms were expressed. Other nematodes, Plectus and Aphelenchoides spp., were infrequently detected in small numbers. Our findings support the involvement of the nematode in BLD and indicate that symptoms develop only when certain requirements, such as infection of buds, are met. We also found that the nematode can be reliably detected in buds and leaves using the modified pan extraction method.

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    Reed, Sharon E.; Greifenhagen, Sylvia; Yu, Qing; Hoke, Adam; Burke, David J.; Carta, Lynn K.; Handoo, Zafar A.; Kantor, Mihail R.; Koch, Jennifer. 2020. Foliar nematode, Litylenchus crenatae ssp. mccannii, population dynamics in leaves and buds of beech leaf disease-affected trees in Canada and the US. Forest Pathology. 50(3): e12599. 9 p.


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    American beech, Chinese beech, disease development, European beech, Fagus engleriana, Fagus grandifolia, Fagus orientalis, Fagus sylvatica, foliar nematode, Litylenchus, Oriental beech, symptoms

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