Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Jacquelyn E. McRae; Peter E. Schlichting; Nathan P. Snow; Amy J. Davis; Kurt C. VerCauteren; John C. Kilgo; David A. Keiter; James C. Beasley; Kim M. Pepin
    Date: 2020
    Source: Wildlife Society Bulletin
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    Station: Southern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (732.0 KB)


    Baiting is a fundamental strategy for the global management of wild pigs (Sus scrofa); however, little information exists on how anthropogenic bait affects wild pig movements on a landscape.We investigated factors that are important in determining the spatial area of attraction for wild pigs to bait (‘area of influence’ of a bait site) using data from Global Positioning System (GPS) collars and locations of bait sites.We monitored movements of wild pigs in 2 distinct study areas in the United States from February to September 2016 and used locational data using GPS collars to analyze the influence of habitat quality (dependent on site), home range size, number of bait sites in the home range, distance to a bait site, and sex in relation to movement in time and space. We determined the average area of influence by calculating the area of a circle with the radius as the average maximum distance travelled by wild pigs to reach a bait site. The average area of influence for our bait sites was 6.7 km2 (or a radius of approximately 1.5 km), suggesting a bait spacing of approximately 1.5 km would be adequate to capture visitation by most wild pigs and a spacing of 3 km could allow substantial visitation while minimizing redundant effort depending on the spatial structure of the populations. Eighty percent of wild pigs first visited bait sites within 8.9 days after bait deployment; and they visited earlier when their home range size was larger. As the number of bait sites in an individual’s home range increased, individual pigs visited more bait sites, and the probability of a visit increased dramatically up to approximately 5 bait sites and much less thereafter.Wild pigs travelled farther distances to visit bait sites in lower quality habitat. Our results support the hypothesis that habitat quality can mediate the efficacy of baiting programs for wildlife by influencing their movement patterns and motivation to use anthropogenic resources. Our results suggest wild pigs will travel extensively within their home range to visit bait sites, and that in lower quality habitat, most animals will find bait sites more quickly. Determining the area of influence of bait sites can increase the efficacy of planning and monitoring management programs. Our study provides new information to help managers plan baiting designs to attract the greatest number of pigs.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    McRae, Jacquelyn E.; Schlichting, Peter E.; Snow, Nathan P.; Davis, Amy J.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; Kilgo, John C.; Keiter, David A.; Beasley, James C.; Pepin, Kim M. 2020. Factors affecting bait site visitation: area of influence of baits. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 44(2): 362-371.


    Google Scholar


    baiting, invasive species, South Carolina, supplemental feeding, Sus scrofa, Texas, wild pigs, wildlife management

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page