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    The World Health Organization (2016) states that air pollution is the largest environmental risk factor to human health, accounting for about one in nine deaths annually. The problems associated with air pollution and higher air temperatures in cities have been known for over a century, but so have the impacts of trees and forests on improving air quality and regulating air temperatures. Trees, through their interaction with the atmosphere, affect air quality and consequently human health, particularly when in close association with people (e.g., in cities).

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    Nowak, David J. 2020. Urban trees, air quality and human health. In: Gallis, Christos; Shin, Won Sop, eds. Forests for public health. ​Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing: 31-55.

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