Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Jacob Henry; John L. Willis; David K.   Schnake; Scott D. Roberts; Heather D. Alexander; Heidi   Renninger
    Date: 2020
    Source: e–Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS–253. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Southern Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (180.0 KB)


    Competition has long been considered a constraint on longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) regeneration. However, observational evidence suggests that neighboring vegetation may facilitate longleaf pine seedlings on xeric sites. To explore this notion, we established a manipulative experiment across a gradient of overstory basal area (9 to 25 m2/ha) with or without a hardwood midstory in the North Carolina Sandhills. After 2 years, seedling survival averaged 80 percent, differed significantly among overstory density groupings (p = 0.0006), and was lowest (73 percent) under high overstory density (greater than 18 m2/ha). Seedling survival also varied significantly among midstory treatments (p = 0.0261), with the highest survival occurring beneath an intact midstory (84 percent). Seedling biomass averaged 10.5 g, varied significantly among overstory groupings (p = 0.0007), and was greatest (10.9 g) under low overstory density (less than 12 m2/ha). The presence of a hardwood midstory did not significantly impact seedling growth.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Henry, Jacob; Willis, John L.;  Schnake, David K.; Roberts, Scott D.; Alexander, Heather D.;  Renninger, Heidi. 2020. Early impacts of midstory hardwoods and overstory density on longleaf pine seedling establishment on xeric sites. In: Bragg, Don C.; Koerth, Nancy E.; Holley, A. Gordon, eds. 2020. Proceedings of the 20th biennial southern silvicultural research conference. e–Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS–253. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station: 107-111.


    longleaf pine, Pinus palustris, competition, seedling survival, seedling biomass

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page