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    Author(s): Cynthia Carey; Paul Stephen Corn; Mark S. Jones; Lauren J. Livo; Erin Muths; Loeffler. Charles W.
    Date: 2005
    Source: In: M. Lannoo (ed.). Amphibian declines: The conservation status of United States species. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. p. 222-236.
    Publication Series: Book Chapter
    Station: Rocky Mountain Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (708.0 KB)


    Boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas) are widely distributed over much of the mountainous western United States. Populations in the Southern Rocky Mountains suffered extensive declines in the late 1970s through early 1980s (Carey, 1993). At the time, these mass mortalities were thought to be associated with a bacterial infection (Carey, 1993). Although the few populations that survived the mass die-offs were not systematically monitored until at least 1993, no mass mortalities had been observed until 1996 when die-offs were observed. A mycotic skin infection associated with a chytrid fungus is now causing mortality of toads in at least two of the populations (M.S. Jones and D.E. Green, unpublished data; Muths et al., 2003). Boreal toads are now absent throughout large areas of their former distribution in Colorado and southern Wyoming and may be extinct in New Mexico (Corn et al., 1989; Carey, 1993; Stuart and Painter, 1994). These toads are classified as “endangered” by Colorado and New Mexico and are designated as a protected non-game species in Wyoming. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has categorized the Southern Rocky Mountain populations for federal listing and is currently reviewing their designation as a “warranted but precluded” species for possible listing in the next few years. For the management of boreal toads and their habitats, a Boreal Toad Recovery Team was formed by the Colorado Division of Wildlife in 1995 as part of a collaborative effort with federal agencies within the United States’ departments of the Interior and Agriculture and with agencies in two adjoining states. To date, conservation agreements have been signed by eight state and federal agencies and by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program.

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    Carey, Cynthia; Corn, Paul Stephen; Jones, Mark S.; Livo, Lauren J.; Muths, Erin; Loeffler. Charles W. 2005. Factors limiting the recovery of boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas) [Chapter 31]. In: M. Lannoo (ed.). Amphibian declines: The conservation status of United States species. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. p. 222-236.


    boreal toads, Bufo b. boreas, populations, declines, conservation

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