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    i-Tree is a suite of computer software tools developed through a collaborative publicprivate partnership. These tools are designed to assess and value the urban forest resource, understand forest risk, and develop sustainable forest management plans to improve environmental quality and human health. This report provides details about the underlying methods and calculations of these tools, as well their potential limitations. Also discussed are the history of i-Tree, its future goals, and opportunities to facilitate new science and international collaboration.

    The appendixes can be accessed through the links below.

    Appendix 1: i-Tree Staff and Collaborators

    Appendix 2: i-Tree Links

    Appendix 3: Shading Coefficients

    Appendix 4: Conversion Factors for Leaf Area to Biomass

    Appendix 5: Conversion Factors for Shrub Volume to Biomass

    Appendix 6: Invasive Plant Species

    Appendix 7: Compensatory Value of Trees

    Appendix 8: Average Energy Costs

    Appendix 9: Energy Conservation Estimates for Buildings in non-U.S. Countries

    Appendix 10: New Biomass Equations

    Appendix 11: Wood Density Values

    Appendix 12: Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) Emission Rates

    Appendix 13: Equations for Tree Height, Crown Height, and Crown Width

    Appendix 14: Partial List of Publications Referencing i-Tree Tools

    Publication Notes

    • Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
    • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat.
    • During the capture process some typographical errors may occur.
    • Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Nowak, David J. 2020. Understanding i-Tree: summary of programs and methods. General Technical Report NRS-200. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 100 p. [plus 14 appendixes].


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    air pollution removal, carbon sequestration, computer modeling, economic valuation, ecosystem services, forest inventory, forest risk, urban forestry

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