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    Author(s): Wendell Haag; Robert S. Butler; Paul D. Hartfield
    Date: 1995
    Source: Freshwater Biology (1995) 34, 471-476
    Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
    PDF: Download Publication  (577 KB)


    1. Females of the North American freshwater bivalve Lampsilis provalis release their larvae, which are obligate parasites on fish, in a discrete mass (superconglutinate) resembling a small fish in shape and coloration. After release, the mass remains tethered to the female by a long, transparent, mucous strand and, in stream currents, displays a darting motion that further mimics a small fish.

    2. Release of superconglutinates was observed in March and April at water temperatures of 14-17°C. However, superconglutinates detached from the parent mussel were observed from March to June at water temperatures of 11-26°C, indicating that release may occur into the summer.

    3. The superconglutinate lure may function to attract a predaceous fish to ingest the mass, ensuring that the larvae are exposed to a suitable host.

    4. This reproductive strategy was confirmed recently to occur in a congener, L. subangulata and is suspected to occur in another congener, L. australis.

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    Haag, Wendell; Butler, Robert S.; Hartfield, Paul D. 1995. An extraordinary reproductive strategy in freshwater bivalves: prey mimicry to facilitate larval dispersal. Freshwater Biology (1995) 34, 471-476

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