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    Author(s): Diane M. Hildebrand; Jeffrey K. Stone; Robert L. James; Susan J. Frankel
    Date: 2004
    Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-608. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 27 p
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (707 KB)


    Field trials at six bare-root forest tree nurseries in the Western United States compared cultural treatments including timing and depth of sowing; bare fallow (with and without periodic tilling); organic amendments including sawdust, composts, and cover crops; mulches including pine needles, sawdust, and rice straw; and fumigation with methyl bromide/chloropicrin or dazomet. Measured effects included population levels of potential soil-borne pathogens (species of Fusarium and Pythium), disease incidence, seedbed density, and sizes of conifer seedlings. Several nonfumigation treatments resulted in production of seedlings with densities and sizes similar to or better than those produced in beds treated with chemical fumigation. Results varied within the nurseries depending on conifer species, field history, and disease presence. Beneficial cultural practices included (1) incorporation of slowly decomposing organic soil amendments, e.g., aged sawdust with additional nitrogen provided later to seedlings; (2) bare fallowing with periodic tilling, and bare fallowing without periodic tilling plus supplemental weed control; and (3) sowing of conifer seed earlier and more shallow than sown conventionally, and covering seed with a nonsoil mulch such as aged sawdust or hydromulch.

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    Hildebrand, Diane M.; Stone, Jeffrey K.; James, Robert L.; Frankel, Susan J. 2004. Alternatives to preplant soil fumigation for Western forest nurseries. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-608. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 27 p


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    Methyl bromide, chloropicrin, dazomet, conifer seedlings, bare fallowing, Fusarium, Pythium

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