Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Fungal and enzymatic pretreatments in hot-pressed lignocellulosic bio-composites: A critical review


Wenjing Sun
Mehdi Tajvidi
Barbara J.W. Cole
Caitlin Howell
Douglas J. Gardner



Publication type:

Scientific Journal (JRNL)

Primary Station(s):

Forest Products Laboratory


Journal of Cleaner Production


Fungal and enzymatic pre-treatments have long been used to activate the surface of lignocellulosic biomass particles or fibers to promote adhesion or develop novel composite materials and other products. Research into mycelium-based bio-composites, i.e. products in which constituents are bonded by fungal mycelium, is quite new and still growing. There has also been a significant amount of attention given to these materials by the industry and private sector. These bio-composites can be produced by enzymatically or fungally treating lignoicellulosic substrates and then either molding them into a shape and letting the fungus grow or, alternatively, by hotpressing the substrate into a panel product. This review article focuses on hot-pressed, higher density lignocellulosic bio-composites produced following enzymatic or fungal pretreatment. The definitions, raw materials, processing procedures, material properties, factors governing product properties, and potential adhesion mechanisms are summarized and discussed. Finally, current commercial products are introduced and roadblocks in the way of further development are presented along with the identification of knowledge gaps.


Sun, Wenjing; Tajvidi, Mehdi; Hunt, Christopher G.; Cole, Barbara J.W.; Howell, Caitlin; Gardner, Douglas J.; Wang, Jinwu. 2022. Fungal and enzymatic pretreatments in hot-pressed lignocellulosic bio-composites: A critical review. Journal of Cleaner Production. 353(1): 131659.


Publication Notes

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.