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Biological control of invasive Linaria spp. in the western United States [Chapter 26]

Author(s):

Ivo Tosevski
Sarah M. Ward
Carol B. Randall
David K. Weaver
Alexander M. Gaffke
Robert M. Nowierski

Year:

2022

Publication type:

Other

Primary Station(s):

Rocky Mountain Research Station

Source:

In: Van Driesche, R. G.; Winston, R. L.; Perring, T. M. ; Lopez, V. M., eds. Contributions of Classical Biological Control to the U.S. Food Security, Forestry, and Biodiversity. FHAAST-2019-05. Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. p. 294-311.

Description

Anecdotal reports indicate that invasive yellow or common toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) and Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica) (Plantaginaceae) were deliberately introduced to North America for ornamental purposes. They were also accidentally introduced as a seed contaminant, as was the case for many early-introduced invasive plants in North America (Mack, 1986, 2003; Mack and Erneberg, 2002; Lehan et al., 2013). In the absence of laws regulating the importation of exotic plants (as opposed to plant pests) into the United States, plant-lovers ranging from homesteaders and miners to horticultural enthusiasts imported and shared non-native flora, including toadflax (Mack, 2004). Widespread co-invasion by both toadflax species in North America resulted in their hybridization, which was first suspected in the early 2000s (Pauchard et al., 2003) and later molecularly confirmed in many western U.S. states (Ward et al., 2009; Boswell et al., 2016).

Citation

Sing, Sharlene E.; Tosevski, Ivo; Ward, Sarah M.; Randall, Carol B.; Weaver, David K.; Gaffke, Alexander M.; Nowierski, Robert M. 2022. Biological control of invasive Linaria spp. in the western United States [Chapter 26]. In: Van Driesche, R. G.; Winston, R. L.; Perring, T. M. ; Lopez, V. M., eds. Contributions of Classical Biological Control to the U.S. Food Security, Forestry, and Biodiversity. FHAAST-2019-05. Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. p. 294-311.

Publication Notes

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https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/64657