Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub


    Many years of human influence across the Interior Highlands have caused profound changes in forest composition, disturbance regimes, and understory dynamics. However, information on the historical condition of these forests is limited. General Land Office (GLO) records, old documents, and contemporary studies provided data on the township encompassing the Lake Winona Research Natural Area (LWRNA). The study area was first surveyed between 1821 and 1838, and few settlers had settled this mountainous region by the 1930s. A 1987 ecological assessment of the LWRNA, coupled with other reports, supplemented the GLO descriptions. The original surveys tallied at least 15 species of witness trees, primarily white oak (Quercus alba L.), black oak (Q. velutina Lam.), shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.), and post oak (Q. stellata Wang.). A 1931 resurvey identified at least 14 taxa, but by then the witness trees had become overwhelmingly shortleaf pine, with much less oak. Forest composition in the LWRNA is shifting once again toward oak dominance, with a prominent pine supercanopy.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Bragg, Don C. 2004. Patterns of Oak Dominance in the Eastern Ouachita Mountains Suggested by Early Records. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-73. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. pp. 57-61

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page