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    Abstract - Shortleaf pine, Pinus echinata Mill., is indigenous to the Ouachita Mountains and the Magazine Mountain area of Arkansas. Natural regeneration of shortleaf pine is a priority on National Forest lands in this area. Insects infesting cones and seeds of shortleaf pine reduce the healthy seeds available for natural regeneration. Two species of seed bug, the leaffooted pine seed bug, Leptoglossus corculus (Say) (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and the shieldbacked pine seed bug, Tetyra bipunctata (Herrich-Schaffer) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) damage pine seeds. We collected cones on or near twenty Ecosystem Management Phase II wildlife sites during late October-early November from 1995 through 1998. In 1998, cone production was too low to include in the analyses. Cones were kiln-dried to open them. Seeds were extracted, dewinged and radiographed. Radiography allows accurate evaluation of healthy and damaged seed. Seed bug damage was consistent with that recorded at the Ouachita Seed Orchard in Mt. Ida, AR. Seed bugs were responsible for about 30 percent damage for combined collections from 1995-97.

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    Mangini, Alex C.; Bruce, William W.; Hanula, James L. 2004. Radiographic Analysis of Shortleaf Pine Seeds From the Ouachita and Ozark National Forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-74. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. pp. 89-91

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