Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Andrew W. Ezell; Mark W. Shankle
    Date: 2004
    Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS–71. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. pp. 571-573
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: Download Publication  (79 KB)


    Afforestation of abandoned agricultural land with hardwood seedlings is being conducted on thousands of acres in the South annually. More than 300,000 acres have been planted under the auspices of the Wetland Reserve Program, and other cost-share programs also promote the planting of hardwood species. Unfortunately, survival in many of these planting efforts has been extremely low. To evaluate the importance of cultural treatments on first-year survival, one-half of previously cultivated area was subsoiled in October 2001. The remainder of the test area was not treated mechanically. In February 2002, 1-0, bareroot seedlings of Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii), water oak Q. nigra), willow oak (Q. phellos) and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) were planted by hand (half of each species in subsoil trenches; half in adjacent untreated areas). Oxyflurofen and sulfometuron were applied over-the-top of the planted seedlings for control of herbaceous vegetation with three replications of each species/treatment combination. Initial total height and groundline diameter (GLD) were measured for sample trees in each species/treatment plot including trees in untreated check plots. In November 2002, survival was evaluated, and height and GLD were remeasured. Subsoiling significantly increased both height and groundline diameter. Survival was not affected by any of the treatments, but differences are expected in year 2 or 3.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Ezell, Andrew W.; Shankle, Mark W. 2004. Effects of Subsoiling and Competition Control on First Year Survival and Growth of Four Hardwood Species. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS–71. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. pp. 571-573

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page