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    Author(s): Lawrence A. Soltis
    Date: 1999
    Source: Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material. Madison, WI : USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, 1999. General technical report FPL ; GTR-113: Pages 7.1-7.28
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: View PDF  (1.1 MB)

    Description

    The strength and stability of any structure depend heavily on the fastenings that hold its parts together. One prime advantage of wood as a structural material is the ease with which wood structural parts can be joined together with a wide variety of fastenings— nails, spikes, screws, bolts, lag screws, drift pins, staples, and metal connectors of various types. For utmost rigidity, strength, and service, each type of fastening requires joint designs adapted to the strength properties of wood along and across the grain and to dimensional changes that may occur with changes in moisture content. Maximum lateral resistance and safe design load values for small-diameter (nails, spikes, and wood screws) and large diameter dowel-type fasteners (bolts, lag screws, and drift pins) were based on an empirical method prior to 1991. Research conducted during the 1980s resulted in lateral resistance values that are currently based on a yield model theory. This theoretical method was adapted for the 1991 edition of the National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS). Because literature and design procedures exist that are related to both the empirical and theoretical methods, we refer to the empirical method as pre-1991 and the theoretical method as post-1991 throughout this chapter. Withdrawal resistance methods have not changed, so the pre- and post-1991 refer only to lateral resistance. The information in this chapter represents primarily Forest Products Laboratory research results. A more comprehensive discussion of fastenings is given in the American Society of Civil Engineers Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 84, Mechanical Connections in Wood Structures. The research results of this chapter are often modified for structural safety, based on judgment or experience, and thus information presented in design documents may differ from information presented in this chapter. Additionally, research by others serves as a basis for some current design criteria. Allowable stress design criteria are presented in the National Design Specification for Wood Construction published by the American Forest and Paper Association; limit states design criteria are presented in the Standard for Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) for Engineered Wood Construction published by the American Society of Civil Engineers.

    Publication Notes

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

    Citation

    Soltis, Lawrence A. 1999. Fastenings. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material. Madison, WI : USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, 1999. General technical report FPL ; GTR-113: Pages 7.1-7.28

    Keywords

    Joints (timber), timber connectors, strength, mechanical properties, fastenings

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