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    Author(s): Donald C. Schmiege
    Date: 1980
    Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-113. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 24 p
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (476 KB)


    For nearly 50 years, effluents from pulp and paper mills have been known to be toxic to fish and other aquatic animals. Lethal concentrations have been determined for several species of fish and other organisms. Many factors- -such as water temperature, age of fish, and additional stresses—affect the ability of fish to withstand pollution. Kraft mill wastes are generally more toxic than sulfite wastes. The high biological oxygen demand of sulfite wastes is often more serious than the chemical toxicity of the effluents. Studies on the effect of kraft effluents on invertebrates show that none of them are more sensitive than juvenile salmonids and some species are more resistant. Fish habitat may also be affected by mill stack emissions. High concentrations of sulfur dioxide may damage or kill trees and other vegetation. The effect of logging camps on fish habitat is largely unknown.

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    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Schmiege, Donald C. 1980. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: processing mills and camps. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-113. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 24 p


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    Pulp/paper industry, toxic effects (biocide), woodwastes, fish habitat, water quality

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