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    Losses of trees and tree volume that result from decay initiated by mechanical injuries during stand management activities in the western United States are substantial. They can be reduced through improved logging methods and careful planning of other forest management activities.

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    Aho, Paul E.; Fiddler, Gary; Filip, Gregory M. 1983. How to reduce injuries to residual trees during stand management activities. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-156. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 22 p


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    Logging damage, tree injury, decay (wood), forest damage/protection, intensive management

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