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    Author(s): W.A. Côté; R.B. Hanna
    Date: 1983
    Source: Wood and Fiber Science 15(2):135-163
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (3.1 MB)


    This study concentrated on the ultrastructural characteristics of hardwood ftacture surfaces, but it included southern yellow pine as a representative softwood for comparison. Very small specimens were made, tested for impression parallel to the grain, tension parallel to the grain, shear in the radial plane and shear in the tangential plane, and were then prepared for scanning electron microscopy. Secondary electron micrographs of the fracture zones were recorded singly or in stereo pairs, and a number are used to illustrate the major findings. Thick-wall cells tend to fail in an intrawall pattern at the SI/S2 interface, while thin-walled cells are more likely to fail with transwall fracture. In tangential shear tests of ring-porous woods, the plane of fracture follows the earlywood vessels which are thin-walled and have wide lumens. Large oak-type rays affect the fracture path in all of the test modes. Certain characteristic types of failure can be related to each of the testing modes utilized.

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    Côté, W.A.; Hanna, R.B. 1983. Ultrasound characteristics of wood fracture surfaces. Wood and Fiber Science 15(2):135-163


    Scanning electron microscopy, compression parallel to the grain, tension parallel to the grain, radial shear, tangential shear, intrawall failure, transwall failure, intercell failure, fracture paths, fracture surface

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