Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): Chung-Yun Hse; Zhi-Yuan Xia; Bunchiro Tomita
    Date: 1994
    Source: Holzforschung 48(6):527
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (2.0 MB)


    Urea formaldehyde resins were formulated with combination variables of three reaction pH (1.0, 4.8, and 8.0) and four molar ratios of formaldehyde to urea (2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0). The resins were prepared by placing all formaldehyde and water in reaction kettle and pH was adjusted with sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide, respectively. Urea was added in 15 equal parts at 1-minute intervals. The proportion of high molecular weight products in the resin increased substantially as the reaction pH decreased. Furthermore, the F/U molar interacted with reaction pH to effect resin molecular weight. At acidic pH, the high molecular weight products increased as F/U ratio decresed; while, at alkaline pH, little difference was evident between the high or low molecular weight products at various F/U ratios. The formation of a high percentage of uron derivatives under strong acidic conditions also indicated these resins differed considerable from conventional UF resins formulated in the past. Panels bonded with resins catalyzed at strong acidic conditions resulted in lowest formaldehyde emission but slightly lower bonding strength. Of the three pH conditions evaluated in the study. both weak and strong acid catalysts systems are not commonly used in conventional UF resin formulation. Based on the bond strength and formaldehyde emission data, however, the weak acid catalysts seems to provide the best compromise between the strong acid and the conventional alkaline-acid catalyst system currently used for formulating UF resin wood adhesives.

    Publication Notes

    • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Hse, Chung-Yun; Xia, Zhi-Yuan; Tomita, Bunchiro. 1994. Effects of reaction pH on properties and performance of urea-formaldehyde resins. Holzforschung 48(6):527


    Urea fomlaldehyde resin, reaction pH, molar ratio, molecular weight, 13C NMR spectra, bond strength, formaldehyde emission

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page