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    Author(s): Laurence Mott; Stephen M. Shaler; Leslie H. Groom
    Date: 1996
    Source: Wood and Fiber Science 28(4):429-437
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (1.8 MB)


    Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and digital image correlation (DIC) were used to measure microstrain distributions on the surface of wood pulp fibers. A loading stage incorporating a fiber gripping system was designed and built by the authors. Fitted to the tensile substage of an ESEM or a Polymer Laboratories MINIMAT tester, it provided a reliable fiber straining mechanism. Black spruce latewood fibers (Picea mariana (Mill) B.S.P.) of a near-zero microfibril angle displayed a characteristically linear load elongation form. ESEM was able to provide real-time, high magnification images of straining fibers, crack growth, and complex single fiber failure mechanisms. Digital images of sinale fibers were also captured and used for subsequent DIC-based strain analysis. Surface displacement and strain maps revealed nonuniform strain distributions in seemingly defect-free fiber regions. Applied tensile displacements resulted in a strain band phenomenon. Peak strain (concentration) values within the bands ranged from 0.9% to 8.8%. It is hypothesized that this common pattern is due to a combination of factors including the action of microcompressive defects and straining of amorphous cell-wall polymeric components. Strain concentrations also corresponded well to locations of obvious strain risers such as visible cell-wall defects. Results suggest that the ESEM-based DIC system is a useful and accurate method to assess and, for the first time, measure fiber micromechanical properties.

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    Mott, Laurence; Shaler, Stephen M.; Groom, Leslie H. 1996. A technique to measure strain distributions in single wood pulp fibers. Wood and Fiber Science 28(4):429-437


    Fibers, micromechanics, strain, digital image correlation, tensile testing, environmental scanning electron microscopy

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