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    Author(s): Robert B. Thomas; Jack Lewis
    Date: 1995
    Source: Journal of Hydrology 170: 27-45.
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: View PDF  (1482 KB)

    Description

    Abstract - Flow-stratified sampling is a new method for sampling water quality constituents such as suspended sediment to estimate loads. As with selection-at-list-time (SALT) and time-stratified sampling, flow-stratified sampling is a statistical method requiring random sampling, and yielding unbiased estimates of load and variance. It can be used to estimate event yields or to estimate mean concentrations in flow classes for detecting change over time or differences from water quality standards. Flow-stratified sampling is described and its variance compared with those of SALT and time-stratified sampling. Time-stratified sampling generally gives the smallest variance of the three methods for estimating storm yields. Flow-stratified sampling of individual storms may fail to produce estimates in some short-lived strata because they may have sample sizes of zero. SALT will tend to give small samples and relatively high variances for small storms. For longer and more complex hydrographs, having numerous peaks, flow-stratified sampling gives the lowest variance, and the SALT variance is lower than that of time-stratified sampling unless the sample size is very large. A desirable feature of flow-stratified sampling is that the variance can be reduced after sampling by splitting strata, particularly high flow strata that have been visited just once, and recalculating the total and variance. SALT has the potential to produce the lowest variance, but cannot be expected to do so with an auxiliary variable based on stage

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    Citation

    Thomas, Robert B.; Lewis, Jack. 1995. An evaluation of flow-stratified sampling for estimating suspended sediment loads. Journal of Hydrology 170: 27-45.

    Keywords

    PSW4351, Caspar Creek, watershed, suspended sediment, flow-stratified sampling, water quality, SALT, random samplin

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