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    This study reviewed the literature on static and impact withdrawal of nails driven into the end grain of wood members. From this, an empirical relationship was created relating the specific gravity of the wood, the diameter of the nail, and the depth of penetration of the nail to the static withdrawal capacity of nails driven into the wood and withdrawn immediately. Areas of additional research are identified for end-grain nailing in wood members.

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    Rammer, Douglas R.; Zelinka, Samuel L. 2004. Review of end grain nail withdrawal research. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-GTR-151. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. 28 pages


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    Withdrawal, end grain, immediate withdrawal, nails, threaded nail, impact withdrawal, delayed withdrawal, moisture content, joints

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