Skip to Main Content
Effect of drying temperature on warp and downgrade of 2 by 4's from small-diameter ponderosa pineAuthor(s): William T. Simpson
Source: Res. Pap. FPL-RP-624. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory: 8 pages
Publication Series: Research Paper (RP)
Station: Forest Products Laboratory
Download Publication (1.6 MB)
DescriptionKiln drying at high temperature may reduce warp in dimension lumber sawn from small-diameter trees. In this study, we examined the effect on warp of high drying temperatures in conjunction with top loading immediately after drying and after storage in typical conditions that result in further moisture loss. Eight-foot-long 2- by 4-in. (2 by 4) boards sawn from open-grown, 30- to 35-year-old, 9-in.-diameter at breast height ponderosa pine trees were kiln dried at three temperatures, 160°F, 230°F, and 280°F. Crook, bow, and twist were measured and compared. Total grade loss from exceeding Structural Light Framing grade warp limits was also measured. Crook, bow, and twist measured after boards had equilibrated to 14% moisture content decreased by 12%, 29%, and 20%, respectively, with increase in kiln drying temperature from 160°F to 280°F. Total grade loss caused by all forms of warp was 24% lower in boards dried at 230°F than at 160°F and 39% lower in boards dried at 280°F than at 160°F. When boards were equilibrated to 4% to 5% moisture content, warp and grade loss from warp increased significantly.
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
CitationSimpson, William T. 2004. Effect of drying temperature on warp and downgrade of 2 by 4''s from small-diameter ponderosa pine. Res. Pap. FPL-RP-624. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory: 8 pages
Keywordskiln drying, ponderosa pine, small-diameter timber, drying degrade
- Acoustic analysis of warp potential of green ponderosa pine lumber
- Using acoustic analysis to presort warp-prone ponderosa pine 2 by 4s before kiln-drying
- Evaluating warp of 2 by 4s sawn from panels produced through green gluing dimension lumber from small ponderosa pine logs
XML: View XML