Skip to Main Content
U.S. Forest Service
Caring for the land and serving people

United States Department of Agriculture

Home > Search > Publication Information

  1. Share via EmailShare on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on Twitter
    Dislike this pubLike this pub
    Author(s): N.A. Bolon
    Date: 1994
    Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-316. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Servcie, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 38 p
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Pacific Northwest Research Station
    PDF: Download Publication  (925 KB)


    Existing literature was used to estimate the economic value of elk to hunters and wildlife watchers, and the economic impact on personal income to local communities in the Blue Mountains (Blues) of Oregon and Washington. An annual survey of hunters at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range provided data for estimated elk hunting values and expenditure impacts. The Starkey data show an estimated median value of about $118 per trip in 1991 dollars; assumptions allowing a mean per-day value, over and above expenditures, result in a potential range of $39 to $78. A previous literature review of hunting valuation studies in the West was updated and converted to 1991 dollars; these data show elk hunting values of $7 to $82 per hunter day with an average of $45. The value of the elk hunting season in the Blues was estimated to be $17 to $20 million per year. Estimated average hunter expenditures in northeast Oregon were $23 per hunter day ($10 million annually), for a personal income impact of $10.31 per hunter day ($5 million annually). Average expenditures State-wide were $48 per day ($19 million annually), generating a State-wide personal income impact of $36 per hunter day ($14 million annually). Values and expenditure data for viewing elk were scarce; estimated per-day values from the compiled studies ranged from about $13 to $48 per activity day for nonconsumptive wildlife use State-wide. If just one of the eight trips taken for nonconsumptive use were to view elk, then the worth of elk viewing in Oregon would range from $11.5 to $42 million, averaging about $22 million annually. If four of the elk viewing sites in the State were further developed to attract half of the users and users took one annual trip to do so, worth would range from $6 to $21 million (averaging $11 million) annually. Of that, $1.3 to $4.8 million annually ($2.5 million on average) could be attributed to the elk viewing site in the Blues if it was further developed. Personal income impacts from viewing elk are not well known but are estimated to generate $8 to $10 million per year in Oregon if one trip annually is taken by nonconsumptive Users to view elk. If the four viewing sites are developed, elk viewing could potentially account for about one-half (or $3.8 to $5.2 million) of the personal income State wide. The Blues could capture about $1 million in personal income by further developing the site there.

    Publication Notes

    • Visit PNW's Publication Request Page to request a hard copy of this publication.
    • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.


    Bolon, N.A. 1994. Estimates of the values of elk in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington: evidence from existing literature. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-316. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Servcie, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 38 p


    Google Scholar


    Big game, Blue Mountains, community impacts, economic values, elk, hunter expenditures, hunting, Oregon, valuation, viewing, Washington

    Related Search

    XML: View XML
Show More
Show Fewer
Jump to Top of Page