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    Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, the pitch canker fungus, causes a number of serious diseases of Pinus species. The pathogen infects a variety of vegetative and reproductive pine structures at different stages of maturity and produces a diversity of symptoms. When the pathogen infects the woody vegetative structures of its pine host, the host-pathogen interaction causes resinous cankers, and the resultant disease is referred to as pitch canker. The pitch canker fungus also causes the mortality of female flowers and mature cones, and deteriorates seeds of several pine species, and can cause mortality of pine seedlings in nurseries. The involvement of insects, interaction with other pine diseases, and the marked influence of biotic and abiotic factors can greatly influence the incidence and severity of infections by F. subglutinans f. sp. pini.

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    Dwinell, L. David; Fraedrich, Stephen W.; Adams, D. 2001. Diseases of pines caused by the pitch canker fungus. Paul E. Nelson Memorial Symposium (2001), p. 225-232

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