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    Author(s): John Kappelman; D. Tab Rasmussen; William J. Sanders; Mulugeta Feseha; Thomas Down; Peter Copeland; Jeff Crabaugh; John Fleagle; Michelle Glantz; Adam Gordon; Bonnie Jacobs; Murat Maga; Kathleen Muldoon; Aaron Pan; Lydia Pyne; Brian Richmond; Timothy Ryan; Erik R. Seiffert; Sevket San; Lawrence Todd; Michael C. Wiemann; Alisa Winkler
    Date: 2003
    Source: Nature. Vol. 426 (Dec. 4, 2003): Pages 549-552
    Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication
    PDF: Download Publication  (610 KB)


    Afro-Arabian mammalian communities underwent a marked transition near the Oligocene/Miocene boundary at approximately 24 million years (Myr) ago. Although it is well documented that the endemic paenungulate taxa were replaced by migrants from the Northern Hemisphere, the timing and evolutionary dynamics of this transition have long been a mystery because faunas from about 32 to 24 Myr ago are largely unknown. Here we report a late Oligocene fossil assemblage from Ethiopia, which constrains the migration to postdate 27 Myr ago, and yields new insight into the indigenous faunal dynamics that preceded this event. The fauna is composed of large paenungulate herbivores and reveals not only which earlier taxa persisted into the late Oligocene epoch hut also demonstrates that one group, the Proboscidea, underwent a marked diversification. When Eurasian immigrants entered Afro-Arabia, a pattern of winners and losers among the endemics emerged: less diverse taxa such as arsinoitheres became extinct, moderately species-rich groups such as hyracoids continued into the Miocene with reduced diversity, whereas the proboscideans successfully carried their adaptive radiation out of Afro-Arabia and across the world.

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    Kappelman, John; Rasmussen, D. Tab; Sanders, William J.; Feseha, Mulugeta; Down, Thomas; Copeland, Peter; Crabaugh, Jeff; Fleagle, John; Glantz, Michelle; Gordon, Adam; Jacobs, Bonnie; Maga, Murat; Muldoon, Kathleen; Pan, Aaron; Pyne, Lydia; Richmond, Brian; Ryan, Timothy; Seiffert, Erik R.; San, Sevket; Todd, Lawrence; Wiemann, Michael C.; Winkler, Alisa. 2003. Oligocene mammals from Ethiopia and faunal exchange between Afro-Arabia and Eurasia. Nature. Vol. 426 (Dec. 4, 2003): Pages 549-552


    Mammals, faunal exchange, Oligocene, wood fossils, wood anatomy

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