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    Author(s): Robert W. Rice; Jeffrey L. Howe; R. Sidney Boone; John L. Tschernitz
    Date: 1994
    Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-GTR-81. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. 24 p.
    Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
    Station: Forest Products Laboratory
    PDF: View PDF  (541 KB)


    A survey was conducted of primary and secondary manufacturing firms that have at least one dry kiln and process approximately 2 million board feet or more of lumber annually. More than 1,500 surveys were completed, representing manufacturers in 43 states. According to survey respondents, approximately 5 billion board feet of hardwood lumber and 24 billion board feet of softwood lumber were kiln dried annually. Drying data were collected for 48 commercial species or species groups and volume information was reported by state and region. The 13-state southern region dried more than twice as much wood as any other area. There were more than 7,000 dry kilns in the United States with a holding capacity of 447 million board feet. This capacity varied by species and region. The majority of kilns were steam heated. The most common maximum operating temperature was between 160°F and 180°F. The decision to use time-based or moisture-content-based kiln schedules depended on the species being dried. Generally, softwood producers used time-based schedules and hardwood producers used moisture-content-based schedules. This is the first national survey of its type to be conducted in the United States. It provides information that may be used to further examine drying practices in the United States.

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    Rice, Robert W.; Howe, Jeffrey L.; Boone, R. Sidney; Tschernitz, John L. 1994. Kiln drying lumber in the United States : a survey of volume, species, kiln capacity, equipment, and procedures, 1992-1993. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-GTR-81. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. 24 p.


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    Drying lumber, dry kilns, drying methods

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