Ionic liquids (ILs) can be used to sustainably convert lignocellulosic feedstocks into renewable bio-based materials and chemicals. To improve the prospects of commercialization, it is essential to investigate the fate of lignocellulosic biomass during IL-based processing and develop tools for…
Keywords: Ionic liquids, Lignocellulosic biomass, Bio-based products, Biomass dissolution, Cell wall swelling, In-situ characterization, High-throughput screening, Cellulose crystallinity, Hemicellulose deacetylation, Lignin, Molecular weight, Semi-empirical polarity scales
Source: Green Chemistry
Without periodic fire, historically open-canopied, oak-dominated upland woodlands of the central and eastern United States are shifting to closed-canopied forests with increased abundance of shade-tolerant and typically fire-sensitive species. Once established, these encroaching species (i.e.,…
Keywords: Flammability, Lignin, Fire suppression, Red maple, American beech, Hickory
Source: Forest Ecology and Management
A lignin-derived mesoporous carbon solid acid catalyst (LDMCC) was prepared using alkali lignin as a carbon source and KCl as a salt template to generate a carbon support that was carboxylated with acrylic acid. The prepared LDMCCs were characterized by various spectroscopies (FTIR, XPS, XRD, Raman…
Keywords: Lignin, weak acid, mesoporous carbon, fructose, 5-HMF, solid acid catalyst
Source: Fuel journal
The retro-aldol reaction is one of the key steps involved in the oxidative conversion of lignin to aromatic aldehydes and acids. In principle, the retro-aldol reaction can proceed in the absence of oxygen. In this work, a new approach based on the influence of oxygen on the oxidation of lignin was…
Keywords: Lignin, Vanillin, Vanillic acid, Oxidation, Retro-aldol reaction, Technology
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Two fungal chloroperoxidases (CPOs), the heme enzyme from Caldariomyces fumago and the vanadium enzyme from Curvularia inaequalis, chlorinated 1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1,3-dihydroxypropane, a dimeric model compound that represents the major nonphenolic structure in lignin.…
Keywords: Lignin, chlorination, cleavage, fungal chloroperoxidases, Caldariomyces fumago, Curvularia inaequalis
Source: Applied and environmental microbiology. Vol. 69, no. 8 (Aug. 2003): p. 5015-5018.
A program was undertaken at the Forest Products Laboratory in conjunction with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) to develop guidelines for a credible accelerated photoaging protocol for printing and writing papers. In support of this, indepth studies of photodegredation were…
Keywords: Paper, Photolysis, Lignin, Aging, Light regime, Exposure, Quantitative analysis, Prediction
Source: [10th International Symposium on Wood and Pulping Chemistry, Main Symposium, 1999 June 07-10, Yokohama, Japan]. Atlanta, GA : TAPPI Press, 1999.:p. 500-504 : ill.
Our understanding of the molecular architecture of intact, native plant cell walls is very limited. Traditional methods of investigation disturb the tissue to varying degrees and conclusions based on these methods may be intimately related to the technique used. A promising new technique to study…
Keywords: Pinus taeda, Tracheids, Molecular biology, Cell structure, Cell walls, Spectroscopy, Chemical composition, Cellulose, Lignin, Probes, Raman spectroscopy
Source: [10th International Symposium on Wood and Pulping Chemistry, Main Symposium, 1999 June 07-10, Yokohama, Japan]. Atlanta, GA : TAPPI Press, 1999.:p. 96-101 : ill.
Data suggest that the dimerization of coniferyl alcohol is not under thermodynamic control. In this study, molecular dynamics calculations were used to estimate the effect of the solvent environment. In water, the coniferyl alcohol radicals were forced to associate by the formation of a solvent…
Keywords: Alcohols, Solvents, Lignin, Biosynthesis, Coniferyl alcohol, Dimerization, Molecular dynamics
Source: Holzforschung. Vol. 53, no. 6 (1999).:p. 585-589 : ill.
Past work has shown that the extracellular manganese- dependent peroxidases (MnPs) of ligninolytic fungi degrade the principal non-phenolic structures of lignin when they peroxidize unsaturated fatty acids. This reaction is likely to be relevant to ligninolysis in sound wood, where enzymes cannot…
Keywords: Lignin, Biodegradation, Decay fungi, Wood destroying fungi, Lipid peroxidation, Manganese peroxidase, Peroxyl radicals
Source: FEBS letters. No. 461 (1999).:p. 115-119 : ill.
Peroxidase/H2O2-mediated radical coupling of hydroxycinnamaldehydes produced 81O14-, 8-5-, 818-, and 5-5dimers as had been documented earlier (although we found that the 815-dimer is produced in its cyclic phenylcoumaran form at neutral pH). Spectral data from dimers and oligomers has allowed a…
Keywords: Lignin, Aldehydes, Spectral analysis, Hydroxycinnamaldehydes, Dimers, Oligomers, Coniferaldehyde, Copolymers, Coniferyl alcohol, Synthetic lignins
Source: [10th International Symposium on Wood and Pulping Chemistry, Main Symposium, 1999 June 07-10, Yokohama, Japan]. Atlanta, GA : TAPPI Press, 1999.:p. 58-63 : ill.