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Intertree competition indices and effects were examined in 14 uneven-aged ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum Engelm.) stands in eastern Montana. Location, height, diameter at breast height (DBH), basal area increment, crown ratio, and sapwood area were determined for each tree (DBH…
Author(s): C.W. Woodall, C.E. Fiedler, K.S. Milner
Keywords: Ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum Engelm, competition, uneven-aged stands, Montana, growth efficiency
Source: Can. J. For. Res. 33: 1719-1726 (2003)
Year: 2003
Stand density index (SDI) was developed to quantify relative stand density in even-aged stands. Application of SDI in uneven-aged stands has been described mathematically but not justified biologically. Diameter-class trends in SDI and sapwood area across 14 uneven-aged ponderosa pine (Pinus…
Author(s): C.W. Woodall, C.E. Fiedler, K.S. Milner
Keywords: Ponderosa pine, (Pinus ponderosa Dougl, Montana, stand density index, site occupency
Source: Can. J. For. Res. 33: 96-100 (2003)
Year: 2003
This paper examines the arguments employed in the debate over reintroduction of wolves into Idaho, Montana, and the Yellowstone National Park Ecosystem; and in Arizona and New Mexico. The study reviews common rhetorical themes used by advocates and opponents of wolf reintroduction and identifies a…
Author(s): Dayle C. Hardy-Short, C. Brant Short
Keywords: wilderness, endangered species, Canis lupus, wolf reintroduction, politics, conflict, attitudes, public opinion, policy, Yellowstone National Park, Idaho, Montana, Arizona, New Mexico
Source: In: McCool, Stephen F.; Cole, David N.; Borrie, William T.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer, comps. 2000. Wilderness science in a time of change conference—Volume 2: Wilderness within the context of larger systems; 1999 May 23–27; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 65-72
Year: 2000
Although the Wilderness Act of 1964 was justified in part by the importance of aquatic conservation, implementation of the Act has primarily focused on protecting terrestrial ecosystems. In this paper, we investigated the role of Congressionally-designated wilderness towards conservation of aquatic…
Author(s): Nathaniel P. Hitt, Christopher A. Frissell
Keywords: wilderness, conservation, aquatic biointegrity, watersheds, Aquatic Diversity Areas (ADA), Montana
Source: In: McCool, Stephen F.; Cole, David N.; Borrie, William T.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer, comps. 2000. Wilderness science in a time of change conference—Volume 2: Wilderness within the context of larger systems; 1999 May 23–27; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 138-142
Year: 2000
An integrated program of ecosystem modeling and extensive field studies at Glacier and Olympic National Parks has quantified many of the ecological processes affected by climatic variability and disturbance. Models have successfully estimated snow distribution, annual watershed discharge, and…
Author(s): Daniel B. Fagre, David L. Peterson
Keywords: wilderness, mountains, ecosystem, models, climate change, ecological disturbance, Glacier National Park, Montana, Olympic National Park, Washington
Source: In: McCool, Stephen F.; Cole, David N.; Borrie, William T.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer, comps. 2000. Wilderness science in a time of change conference—Volume 3: Wilderness as a place for scientific inquiry; 1999 May 23–27; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-3. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 74-81
Year: 2000
The Beartooth Butte Formation is found in many mountain ranges throughout central Montana and northern Wyoming. This study combines a variety of geologic data to provide a clearer understanding of the fossil fauna and environmental setting of this rock unit. Results show not all exposures of this…
Author(s): Anthony R. Fiorillo
Keywords: wilderness, paleontology, geology, fossils, fauna, Montana, Wyoming
Source: In: McCool, Stephen F.; Cole, David N.; Borrie, William T.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer, comps. 2000. Wilderness science in a time of change conference—Volume 3: Wilderness as a place for scientific inquiry; 1999 May 23–27; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-3. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 160-167
Year: 2000
Bulletin boards are a frequently used method of communicating minimum impact behaviors to wilderness visitors. But how effective are they? What types of visitors are most likely to pay attention to the messages posted there? This study used a field experiment to identify visitor characteristics…
Author(s): Stephen F. McCool, David N. Cole
Keywords: wilderness, visitors, impacts, communication, persuasive messages, bulletin boards, Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Montana
Source: In: Cole, David N.; McCool, Stephen F.; Borrie, William T.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer, comps. 2000. Wilderness science in a time of change conference--Volume 4: Wilderness visitors, experiences, and visitor management; 1999 May 23–27; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-4. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 208-216
Year: 2000
Since its inception as a wilderness planning and management tool almost 15 years ago, the Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) process has stressed the importance of monitoring. Monitoring social conditions is critical to ensure that quality visitor experiences are maintained. Ten years of data…
Author(s): Joe L. Ashor
Keywords: wilderness, social indicators, monitoring, Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC), crowding, Bear Trap Canyon Wilderness, Montana
Source: In: Cole, David N.; McCool, Stephen F.; Borrie, William T.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer, comps. 2000. Wilderness science in a time of change conference—Volume 4: Wilderness visitors, experiences, and visitor management; 1999 May 23–27; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-4. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 229-231
Year: 2000
Winter use in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks increased dramatically in the 1980s and early 1990s. That increase and the emphasis on snowmobiles as the primary mode of transportation brought into focus a host of winter-related issues, including air pollution, unwanted sound, wildlife…
Author(s): John A. Sacklin, Kristin L. Legg, M. Sarah Creachbaum, Clifford L. Hawkes, George Helfrich
Keywords: winter, planning, monitoring, outdoor recreation, snowmobiles, legislation, regulations, Yellowstone National Park, Grand Teton National Park, Montana, Wyoming
Source: In: Cole, David N.; McCool, Stephen F.; Borrie, William T.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer, comps. 2000. Wilderness science in a time of change conference—Volume 4: Wilderness visitors, experiences, and visitor management; 1999 May 23–27; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-4. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 243-250
Year: 2000
Wilderness campsites heavily damaged by recreational use pose a significant management challenge that threatens the integrity of the wilderness resource and the quality of the visitors’ experience. This study, conducted in the Mission Mountains Wilderness of northwestern Montana, surveyed 293…
Author(s): Joseph P. Flood, Leo H. McAvoy
Keywords: wilderness, campsites, restoration, recreation, visitor experience, Mission Mountains Wilderness, Montana
Source: In: Cole, David N.; McCool, Stephen F.; Borrie, William T.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer, comps. 2000. Wilderness science in a time of change conference-Volume 5: Wilderness ecosystems, threats, and management; 1999 May 23–27; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-5. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 193-198
Year: 2000
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