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Forest composition and structure on the eastern slope of the Cascade Mountains have been influenced by decades of fire exclusion. Multilayered canopies and high numbers of shade-tolerant true fir trees interact with western spruce budworm to alter forest structure and to affect potential fire behavior…
Author(s): S. Hummel, J.K. Agee
Keywords: Western spruce, budworm
Source: Northwest Science. 77(2): 159-169
Year: 2003