Wood can be chemically modified to reduce the moisture content of the cell wall and increases decay resistance. As the level of bonded chemical increases, the cell wall equilibrium moisture content decreases and the resistance to attack by white-and brown-rot fungi increases. There is a direct…
Keywords: Plant cell walls, wood-decaying fungi, wood moisture, wood chemistry, chemical reactions, biodegradation, wood preservation, deterioration, acetylation, resistance to decay, modified wood, preservation, moisture content, chemical modification of wood, dimensional stability
Source: ECOWOOD 2006 : 2nd International Conference on Environmentally-Compatible Forest Products, Fernando, Pessoa University, Oporto, Portugal, 20-22 September 2006. [S.l. : s.n.], 2006: p. 227-237.
For most markets for wood, it is used without any treatments or modifications. When wood is used in adverse environments, it may be treated with chemicals to help prevent decay, improve water resistance, reduce the effects of ultraviolet radiation or increase fire retardancy. Many of these…
Keywords: Acetic anhydride, acetylation, chemical modification, decay, dimensional stability, equilibrium moisture content, fungal cellar, fungi, plant cell walls, wood-decaying fungi, wood moisture, wood chemistry, biodegradation, deterioration, chemical reactions, wood preservation, acetylated wood, resistance to decay, modified wood, chemical modification of wood, moisture content, preservation
Source: Wood material science and engineering. Vol. 1 (2006): pages 29-33.
A high quality draft genome sequence has been generated for the lignocellulose-degrading basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Martinez et al. 2004). Analysis of the genome in the context of previously established genetics and physiology is presented. Transposable elements and their potential…
Keywords: Enzymes, lignocellulose, genetic transcription, fungi, industrial applications, Basidiomycetes, wood-decaying fungi, biodegradation, genomes, nucleotide sequence, molecular genetics, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, white rot, wood decay
Source: Applied mycology and biotechnology. Volume 5, Genes and genomics. Amsterdam : Boston : Elsevier, 2005: ISBN: 0444518088: 9780444518088: p. -352.
The fungi that cause brown rot of wood initiate lignocellulose breakdown with an extracellular Fenton system in which Fe2+ and H2O2 react to produce hydroxyl radicals (•OH), which then oxidize and cleave the wood holocellulose. One such fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum, drives Fenton chemistry on…
Keywords: Oxidation, lignocelulose, hydroxylation, biodegradation, brown rot, hydroquinone, Basidiomycetes, wood-decaying fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum, holocellulose, Fenton system
Source: Environmental microbiology. Vol. 8, no. 12 (2006): p. 2214-2223.
Moisture management remains the most critical factor for controlling mold growth on wood and wood products during storage, construction, and while in service. When moisture management practices fail to adequately control moisture, plant extracts demonstrating antifungal properties may provide…
Keywords: Essential oils, mold, antifungal agents, moldicides, thymes, Penicillum chrysogenum, Aspergillus niger, biodegradation, fungicides, essences, essential oils, plant extracts, mold control, wood-decaying fungi, dill, Pelargoniums, lemongrass oil, tea tree oil, rosemary, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma mold, Southern yellow pine, decay fungi, ajowan oil
Source: International biodeterioration & biodegradation. Vol. 59 (2007): pages 302-306.
Small specimens of sheathing-grade oriented strandboard (OSB) and sheathing-grade plywood were evaluated for retention of mechanical properties in exterior exposure over a series of exposure times. In contrast to previous studies of this nature, specimens at prolonged exposure times were also…
Keywords: Weathering, particle board, mechanical properties, deterioration, wood-decaying fungi, biodegradation, plywood, accelerated life testing, exposure, resistance to decay, moisture, decay fungi, durability, OSB, oriented strandboard, decay, physical properties
Source: 41st International Wood Composites Symposium proceedings : March 26-28, 2007, Seattle, WA. [Pullman, Wash.] : Washington State University, 2007: 16 pages.
The term “wood-plastic composites” refers to any number of composites that contain wood (of any form) and either thermoset or thermoplastic polymers. Thermosets or thermoset polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins, such as epoxies and…
Keywords: Thermoplastic composites, biodegradation, deterioration, composite materials, fibers, wood flour, moisture, weathering, wood fibers, wood-plastic materials
Source: Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites. Boca Raton, Fla. : CRC Press, 2005: pages 365-378.
Wood is used to produce many products (structural and nonstructural) for applications in which its natural properties are adequate. With the decrease of wood availability and the increase of less durable, younger and faster-growing trees, it is possible to modify wood in various ways to improve the…
Keywords: Composite materials, fire testing, weathering, monomers, synthetic gums, synthetic resins, deterioration, water-soluble polymers, plastic-impregnated wood, polymerization, Crosslinking (polymerization), mechanical properties, biodegradation, impregnation, wood-plastic composites, polymers, crosslinking (molecular)
Source: Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites. Boca Raton, Fla. : CRC Press, 2005: pages 421-446.
The white rot basidiomycete, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, employs an array of extracellular enzymes to completely degrade the major polymers of wood : cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Towards the identification of participating enzymes, 268 likely secreted proteins were predicted using SignalP…
Keywords: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, genome, proteome, secretome, glycosyl hydrolase, cellulase, wood biodegradation, biodegradation, gene expression, hemicellulose, enzymes, mass spectrometry, Basidiomycetes, cellulose, amino acid sequence, wood decay, secretome, white rot
Source: Journal of biotechnology. Vol. 118 (2005): p. 17-34.
The role of moisture in the biological decay of wood-plastic composites was investigated. Southern pine wood fiber and ponderosa pine wood flour were chemically modified using either acetic anhydride (AA), butylene oxide (BO), or propylene oxide (PO). A 50:50 mixture of high density polyethylene…
Keywords: Composites, polyethylene, chemical modification, acetic anhydride, butylene oxide, propylene oxide, equilibrium moisture content, decay, mechanical properties, biodegradation, wood plastic composites, wood-decaying fungi, moisture content, wood flour, wood fibers, ponderosa pine, southern pine, Gloeophyllum trabeum
Source: Proceedings of the 6th Pacific Rim Bio-Based Composites Symposium & Workshop on the Chemical Modification of Cellulosics, Portland, Oregon, USA, 2002: pages 574-584.