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Existing log grading procedures in the United States make only visual assessments of log quality. These procedures do not incorporate estimates of the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of logs. It is questionable whether the visual grading procedures currently used for logs adequately assess the…
Author(s): Xiping Wang, Robert J. Ross, David W. Green, Brian Brashaw, Karl Englund, Michael Wolcott
Keywords: Red maple, log grading, stress wave testing
Source: Wood science and technology. Vol. 37 (2004): Pages 531-537
Year: 2004
Existing log grading procedures in the United States make only visual assessments of log quality. These procedures do not incorporate estimates of the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of logs. It is questionable whether the visual grading procedures currently used for logs adequately assess the…
Author(s): Xiping Wang, Robert J. Ross, David W. Green, Karl Englund, Michael Wolcott
Keywords: Red maple, log grading, nondestructive testing
Source: Hardwood Symposium proceedings : May 11-13, 2000, Davis, WV. Memphis, TN : National Hardwood Lumber Association, 2000: Pages 95-101
Year: 2000
This report provides a general overview of current log sort yard operations in the United States, including an extensive literature review and information collected during on-site visits to several operations throughout the nation. Log sort yards provide many services in marketing wood and fiber by…
Author(s): John Rusty Dramm, Gerry L. Jackson, Jenny Wong
Keywords: Log sort yard, small diameter, underutilized species, value-added, sorting, log scaling, log grading, log merchandising
Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-GTR-132. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. 39 p.
Year: 2002
Nondestructive testing (NDT) of wood products, such as lumber and veneer, for stiffness and strength evaluation has been proven and commercialized for many years. The NDT concept has been extended and commercialized in the Director HM-200™ tool for testing logs in advance of processing so…
Author(s): Peter Carter, David Briggs, Robert J. Ross, Xiping Wang
Keywords: Nondestructive testing, tree quality, log quality, modulus of elasticity, stiffness, trees, forestry, wood quality, valuation, elasticity, logs, standing trees, wood strength, acoustic testing, log grading
Source: Productivity of western forests : a forest products focus. Portland, OR : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, [2005]. General technical report PNW ; GTR-642.
Year: 2005
In part to supplement meager data on lumber grade yield of Hawaii-grown timber, 30 robusta eucalyptus logs were shipped to a Michigan sawmill for processing. The logs were from 12 trees in three different stands. The lumber produced was graded according to National Hardwood Lumber Association…
Author(s): Roger G. Skolmen
Keywords: Eucalyptus robusta, Hawaii, lumber grading, log grading
Source: Res. Note PSW-RN-204. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 4 p
Year: 1970
The objective of this study was to investigate how a stress wave travels in a standing tree as it is introduced into the tree trunk through a mechanical impact. A series of stress wave time-of-flight (TOF) data were obtained from three freshly-cut red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) logs by means of a…
Author(s): Houjiang Zhang, Xiping Wang, Juan Su
Keywords: Wood deterioration, red pine, pine, grading, mechanical properties, wood grading, acoustic properties, wood quality, wood defects, stress waves, nondestructive testing, acoustic imaging, Pinus resinosa, wood testing, testing methods, pine decay, standing trees, acoustic testing, wood decay, log quality, log grading, 2D stress wave contour maps, 3D stress wave contour maps, knots, logs, stress wave contour map, stress wave propagation, time-of-flight, wave front
Source: Holzforschung. Vol. 65, no. 5 (Aug. 2011): p. 743-748.
Year: 2011
Large numbers of black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.) and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea Muenchh.) trees are declining and dying in the Missouri Ozark forest as a result of oak decline. Red oak borer-infested trees produce low-grade logs that become extremely difficult to merchandize as the level of…
Author(s): Xiping Wang, Henry E. Stelzer, Jan Wiedenbeck, Patricia K. Lebow, Robert J. Ross
Keywords: Acoustic velocity, logs, defects, grade yield, mechanical properties, oak decline, red oak, red oak borer, wood, nondestructive testing, acoustic imaging, deterioration, testing, acoustic properties, wood quality, acoustic properties, black oak, diseases and pests, oak, biodegradation, wood defects, wood grading, insect pests, red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus, wood decay, acoustic testing, log quality, oak decay, log grading, yields
Source: Wood and fiber science. Vol. 41, no. 2 (Apr. 2009): pages 180-193.
Year: 2009
The new Director ST300 provides a means to efficiently assess stands for stiffness and related wood properties based on standing tree acoustic velocily measures, and can be easily integrated with pre-harvest and earlier stand assessments. This provides for effective valuation for forest sale,…
Author(s): Peter Carter, Xiping Wang, Robert J. Ross, David Briggs
Keywords: Wood, mechanical properties, nondestructive testing, microfibrils, acoustic testing, log grading, grading, stiffness, standing trees
Source: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Nondestructive Testing of Wood : May 2-4, 2005, University of Applied Sciences, Eberswalde, Germany. Aachen, Germany : Shaker Verlag, 2005: pages 161-169
Year: 2005
Transverse vibration as a nondestructive testing and evaluation technique was first examined in the early 1960s. Initial research and development efforts focused on clear wood, lumber, and laminated products. Out of those efforts, tools were developed that are used today to assess lumber properties…
Author(s): Robert J. Ross
Keywords: Nondestructive testing, wood testing, mechanical properties, wood properties, modulus of elasticity, elasticity, stress waves, bridges, testing, wooden bridges, vibration tests, testing methods, bending strength, log grading, timber bridges, ASTM Standard D6874-03
Source: Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Nondestructive Testing of Wood : September 10-12, 2007. Madison, WI : Forest Products Society, c2008: p. 13-15. ISBN: 9781892529527: 1892529521.
Year: 2008
Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of wood quality in standing trees is an important procedure in the forest operational value chain worldwide. The goal of this paper is to investigate how a stress wave travel in a tree stem as it is introduced into the tree through a mechanical impact. Experimental…
Author(s): Juan Su, Houjiang Zhang, Xiping Wang
Keywords: Wood deterioration, testing, red pine, pine grading, mechanical properties, wood grading, pine, acoustic properties, wood quality, grading, wood defects, stress waves, nondestructive testing, acoustic imaging, Pinus resinosa, pine decay, standing trees, acoustic testing, wood decay, log quality, log grading, 3D stress wave contour maps, trees
Source: Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood, October 12-14, 2009, Beijing, China. Beijing, China : Beijing Forestry University, c2009: p. 59-64.
Year: 2009
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