Sediment transport occurring after spawning can cause scour of incubating embryos and infiltration of fine sediment into spawning gravel, decreasing intergravel flow and preventing hatched fry from emerging from the gravel. Documentation of these effects requires measuring gravel conditions before…
Keywords: PSW4351, spawning gravel, fine sediment, channel scour, methods
Source: Research Note PSW-411, Berkeley, California: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 7 p.
A protocol and methods for monitoring the major physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems are presented. The monitoring protocol is organized into four stages. At stage 1 information is obtained on a basic set of parameters that describe stream ecosystems. Each following…
Keywords: bioassessment, methods, sampling, macroinvertebrates, production
Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-70. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 137 p.
This bibliography focuses on the links between social system well-being and ecosystem health. It is intended for public land managers and scientists and students of social and natural sciences. Multidisciplinary science that addresses the interconnections between the social system and the ecosystem…
Keywords: Ecosystem health, social system well-being, sustainability, natural resources, human ecology, environment-human interactions, links, interconnections, economics, ecosystem management, social values, ethics, indicators, methods
Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-559. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 47 p
Historical and technical background is provided about ozone air pollution effects on ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) and Jeffrey (P. jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) pines in forests of the western United States. The principal aim is to document the development of field survey methods to be…
Keywords: ozone, injury, ponderosa, Jeffrey, pines, methods
Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW–GTR–155. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; 79 p
This paper reviews the role of soil respiration in determining ecosystem carbon balance, and the conceptual basis for measuring and modeling soil respiration. We developed it to provide background and context for this special issue on soil respiration and to synthesize the presentations and…
Keywords: belowground carbon allocation, carbon cycling, carbon dioxide, CO2, Infrared gas analyzers, methods, soil carbon, terrestrial ecosystems
Source: Biogeochemistry. 73: 3-27.
Birds are indicators of vegetation structure and ecological conditions. The singing activity of birds declines during late-morning periods, which can affect estimates of abundance and conclusions regarding vegetative conditions indexed by birds. Therefore, it is important to quantify periods of…
Keywords: forest birds, detection, hourly variation, methods
Source: Res. Pap. RMRS-RP-21. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 6 p
This report develops a standard way of measuring stream, riparian, and biotic conditions and evaluates the validity of the measurements recommended. Accuracy and precision of most measurements are defined. This report will be of value to those persons documenting, monitoring, or predicting stream…
Keywords: methods, aquatic habitat, fish, streams, inventory, fish dynamics, riparian, stream channel, macroinvertebrates
Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-138. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 70 p.
Using the taxonomy of personal benefits attributed to wilderness and developed for the 1985 national wilderness conference, this paper summarizes the research since published on the benefits of nonfacilitated uses of wilderness. It describes recent developments in theory and methods regarding…
Keywords: wilderness, benefits, experiences, theory, methods, outdoor recreation, leisure, research, resource management
Source: In: McCool, Stephen F.; Cole, David N.; Borrie, William T.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer, comps. 2000. Wilderness science in a time of change conference—Volume 3: Wilderness as a place for scientific inquiry; 1999 May 23–27; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-3. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 33-49
The paper is a practical guide to field methodology for conducting a radio telemetry study of spotted owls (Strix occidentalis) in mountainous terrain. It begins with a synopsis of spotted owl biology and basic telemetry. The criteria used to select which owls will carry transmitters are…
Keywords: Radio telemetry, Strix occidentalis, spotted owl, Pacific Northwest, methods
Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-272. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station
Accelerated leaching methods are needed to better estimate emissions from treated wood used above ground or above water. In this study, we evaluated leaching methods using continuous immersion, dip immersion, and simulated rainfall approaches. Copper and/or boron emissions were measured for…
Keywords: Wood moisture, moisture, precipitation, borax, boron, water pollution, Leaching, methods, moisture content, treated wood, service life, preservative treated wood, wood preservatives, leaching, arsenic, copper, chromium, preservatives, boron compounds, preservative treatments, environmental aspects, southern pine, CCA, chromated copper arsenate
Source: Wood and fiber science. Vol. 40, no. 4 (Oct. 2008): Pages 562-571.