This paper summarizes findings from a detailed study of the processes employed by four leading wilderness therapy programs focusing on how wilderness therapy works, the kinds of behavioral problems to which it is commonly applied, expected outcomes and the role of wilderness in the intervention and…
Keywords: wilderness, therapy, behavior, addiction, adolescents, outcomes, treatment, psychological aspects, observation, NUD, IST, models, coding, inductive approach
Source: In: McCool, Stephen F.; Cole, David N.; Borrie, William T.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer, comps. 2000. Wilderness science in a time of change conference—Volume 3: Wilderness as a place for scientific inquiry; 1999 May 23–27; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-3. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 207-217
Contains 17 papers summarizing up to 5 years of recent study on insect and disease problems of black walnut and butternut given at a workshop sponsored by the USDA Forest Service's North Central Forest Experiment Station and held in Carbondale, Illinois, June 13 and 14, 1978.
Keywords: walnut, Juglans nigra, decay, deformities, control, pesticides, prevention, treatment
Source: General Technical Report NC-52. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station
Discusses rate results and associated machine costs and effectiveness of a ground-based herbicide application system.
Keywords: herbicide, ground sprayer, release, site preparation, treatment
Source: Research Paper NC-308. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station
Dissection of white ash embryos from the seed, coupled with cytokinin treatment, has been shown to enhance germination and seedling survival, as compared to whole seed stratification methods.
Keywords: zeatin, stratification, viability, yield, treatment
Source: Research Note NC-220. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station
Many specialty treatments can be applied to wood to either improve its performance or change its properties. Treatments addressed in this chapter are those that make permanent changes in the shape of a wood product, improvements in dimensional stability, or improvements in performance through…
Keywords: Composite boards, improved wood, plasticized wood, treatment, wood properties, stability, shape, bending
Source: Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material. Madison, WI : USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, 1999. General technical report FPL ; GTR-113: Pages 19.1-19.14
When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most…
Keywords: Wood preservation, preservative treated wood, penetration, treatment, application methods, species differences
Source: Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material. Madison, WI : USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, 1999. General technical report FPL ; GTR-113: Pages 14.1-14.27
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of a new boron-nitrogen, phosphate-free fire-rerardant (FR) formulation on the initial strength of No. 1 southern pine 2 by 4 lumber and its potential for in-service thermal degradation. The lumber was evaluated according to Method C of the D…
Keywords: Fire-retardant, treatment, thermal degradation, high temperature, lumber
Source: Journal of testing and evaluation. Vol. 31, no. 2 (2003): Pages 148-153
Research programs throughout North America are increasingly focusing on understanding and defining the salient issues of wood durability and maintaining and extending the serviceability of existing wood structures. This report presents the findings and implications of a 10-year research program,…
Keywords: Service life, serviceability, durability, fire retardant, treatment
Source: Proceedings of the 9th Durability of Building Materials and Components Conference held 17-20, March 2002, in Brisbane, Australia. S.l. : s.n., 2002: 7 pages
Recent studies on the effects of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment on lumber design properties have primarily evaluated the effects of such treatment at or near 12% moisture content and at failure times of 1 to 10 min. The influence of various moisture contents and faster loading rates is…
Keywords: CCA, preservative, treatment, mechanical properties, moisture content, short-term load durations
Source: Wood and fiber science. Vol. 27, no. 2 (1995): Pages 168-177
Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted in which preservative metals (As, Cr, & Cu) were thermochemically extracted from CCA-treated spruce (Picea engelmannii) using oxalic acid and sodium hydroxide. The effects of extraction time, temperature, and pH were examined and laboratory scale…
Keywords: Preservatives, treatment, remediation, recycling, composites, flakeboard, composite materials, mechanical properties, temperature, spruce, sodium hydroxide, oxalic acid, recycled products, wood preservatives, recycling, particle board, copper, chrome, arsenic, waterborne preservatives, particle board, physical properties, preservative treated wood, treated wood, Engelmann spruce, chromated copper arsenate, thermochemical remediation, chromated copper arsenate, copper chrome arsenate, CCA
Source: Proceedings, 104th annual meeting of the American Wood Protection Association ... Portland, Oregon, May 18-20 2008 : volume 104. Birmingham, Ala. : American Wood Protection Association, c2008: pages 256-266.