United States Department of Agriculture
A tube-type gage is economical, easy to make, and is a reliable indicator of frost depth. Gage reading were within ? 5 centimeters of indicated true frost depth 95 percent of the time.
Shows pictorially the relations between exterior defect indicators and their underlying defects for old-growth sugar maple in the Lake States.
Crown width-d.b.h. relationships in well stocked, uneven-aged stands of oak and hickory were similar to those for open-grown trees and were independent of site, crown class, and species. The irregular crowns of forest grown trees interface and overlap, however, and measuring crown extensions to the branch tips tended to overestimate effective crown area
Geographic variation in 480 1-year-old families of black walnut was studied. For most characters, the pattern of variation was clinal
Percent slope, aspect, topographic position, and crown closure were found to have no significant influence on forest floor depth in southwestern Wisconsin. However, a significant decrease in forest floor depth and an increase in soil compaction were found on currently grazed slopes. Yet when grazing is stopped recovery is apperently quick with no permanent damage....
Sycamore specimens were planned with various combinations of depths of cut and rake angles. Depths of cut up to 1/16 inch had no significant effect on the occurrence of chipped grain in sycamore but rake angle did.
A test of the influence of light intensity on dormant buds of young sugar maple trees showed that exposure to light is not essential for epicormic sprouting
Picloram (4 amino-3, 5, 6-tri-chloropicolinic acid), manufactured under the name of Tordon, controls most pole-size and smaller hardwoods in the Lake States by stem injections spaced up to 6 incest apart.
A Simple, inexpensive collar made of Armor-tite (a vinyl-coated nylon fabric) was designed for marking white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces alces). Field tests showed that the material is easily seen and extrememly durable. It may be suitable for use on other large mammals. The collar can be quickly fitted to individual animals under field...
Describes the construction and testing of portable hog shade-shelters made from low-grade red oak lumber
A study of epicormic sprouting in pole-size sugar maples showed that all visible dormant buds on the bole were capable of producing epicormic shoots. The buds were induced to break dormancy by applying four methods of crown removal known to stimulate sprouting. The amount of crown removed determined the year that the buds broke dormancy; this may be accounted for by...
This 24th annual report shows that 1969 Lake States pulpwood output rose to about 3.9 million cords from about 3.5 million cords in 1968. Pulpwood harvesting increased 150,000 cords in Wisconsin, 113,000 cords in Minnesota, and 102,000 cords in Michigan. For the first time, pulpwood imports from western States exceeded those from Canada.
Seeds of yellow and paper birch were stored successfully in closed containers at 36 degrees to 49 degrees F. for 8 years, but viability varied greatly among individual lots.
Two biological growth functions, an exponential-monomolecular function and a simple monomolecular function, have been fit to published site index curves for 11 Lake States tree species: red, jack, and white pine, balsam fir, white and black spruce, tamarack, white-cedar, aspen, red oak, and paper birch. Both functions closely fit all published curves except those for...
Cone production and growth were increased more by heavy thinning than by fertilizing in 53- and 55-year-old natural red pine stands growing on medium sites, and in a 20-year-old plantation on a good site.
Sugar maple bark thickness and volume were estimated using first a published method, then equations developed by the authors. Both methods gave estimates that compared closely with measured values. Information is also presented on variation in bark thickness and on weight and volume of bark as a percentage of total merchantable stem weight and volume.
Provides data on the variation in density and the proportion of sugar maple sapwood and heartwood by height in the tree.
This paper discusses the results of field tests to determine experimentally the weights and locate the centers of gravity for aspen trees and boles.
Describes the skiers and ski areas in the Midwest. Analyzes market structure for the industry, the factors associated with financial success, the impact of spending on local economies, and the potential of ski area investment. Includes ski area financial statements.
Errors in estimating costs and return, the timing of harvests, and the cost of using funds can greatly affect the apparent desirability of investments in timber production. Partial derivatives are used to measure the impact of these errors on the predicted present net worth of potential investments in timber production. Graphs that illustrate the impact of each type...