United States Department of Agriculture
Reports the results of a survey of operational prescribed burns in the Lake States during 1970.
Overstories left after aspen-mixed hardwood stands are logged can be controlled with aerially applied herbicides without endangering aspen suckers.
Reports the results of a survey of operational prescribed burns in Minnesota and Wisconsin during 1969.
Summarizes the best available seed source recommendations for the major species used in planting programs in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan
Cultivation, atrazine, and simazine were used for weed control 1, 2, and 3 years following planting of black walnut in Iowa and Indiana. In Iowa, 2 or more years of weed control resulted in the best seedling growth, but in Indiana 3 years proved best. Method of weed control had no significant effect on seedling growth in Iowa, but chemical control resulted in better...
Ten-year-old eastern white pine trees from southern Appalachian sources growing in southern Illinois and southern Indiana are taller and have fewer branches for their size than trees from other sources. In a northeastern Iowa plantation, the "best" seed source is not yet apparent.
Basal-area growth, board-foot growth, and total board-foot production increase with residual stand densities ranging from 80 to 140 square feet per acre.
The potential damage of the Saratoga spittlebug to red pine can be predicted by comparing the percentage of ground occupied by sweet-fern with the percentage of ground cover occupied by other nymphal host plants. A risk-rating graph is used to estimate potential damage.
Summarizes information on: (1) soil-site relations; (2) associated vegetation; (3) methods and requirements for reproduction; (4) stand development; (5) yield and 10-year net growth; (6) damaging agents. A key to recommended management practices is given for pulpwood and Christmas tree stands, and requirements for successful broadcast burning are included.
Presents site-index comparisons for the following forest species in northern Minnesota: quaking aspen, paper birch, basswood, red oak, black ash, jack pine, red pine, white pine, white spruce, black spruce, balsam fir, white-cedar, and tamarack. Shows site-index relationships among these species by using site-index ratios and species-comparison graphs.
Describes virgin plant communities in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area. Data from all vegetative components of 106 virgin upland stands were used to construct a community classification through a combination of agglomerative clustering and principal components analysis. Discusses the relation of communities to their environment and to past wildfires.
From a study of campground use in 1967 and 1968 relationships were determined between the intensity of use and 74 onsite and location characteristics. Campers were interviewed to learn what factors influenced their choice of a particular campground. Recommendations to management and topics for further research are discussed.
This 25th annual reports shows that 1970 Lake Sates pulpwood production rose to over 4? million cords. Output increased 206,000 cords in Wisconsin, 104,000 cords in Michigan, and 32,000 cords in Minnesota. Birch pulpwood harvesting has increased rapidly since 1967.
Complete crown release more than doubles the diameter growth of pole-size black walnut trees in southern Indiana over a 10-year period. Partially released trees gew about 50 percent more than unreleased trees. The faster growth of the released trees was directly related to increases in crown-area expansion. Most of the study trees produced bole sprouts; however, the...
Thinning 37-year-old aspen in north central Minnesota did not increase either total volume production or the number of veneer-sized trees after 10 years. Thinning is not recommended for stands nearing rotation age.
Indicates that rake angle for hard maple and perhaps other hardwoods should be determined by depth rather than frequency of machining defects.
Early results of a black walnut cornseed source study conducted in southern Illinois suggest that seed should be collected from local or south-of-local areas. Trees from southern sources grew faster and longer than trees from northern sources. Trees from southern sources flushed slightly earlier and held their leaves longer than trees from northern sources. For the...
Fertilization resulted in increased height and top weight of red pine seedlings by the end of the second growing season, but also resulted in considerable seedling mortality. A high level of watering also increased seedling growth but to a much less extent than fertilization. Fertilization of 1-year-old seedlings resulted in dramatic changes in their chemical...
Four years after planting in oak clearcuttings, 1-1 white ash transplants had the best survival and growth of seven hardwood species. Other species tests were yellow-poplar, sugar maple, red maple, northern red oak, and American basswood. The relatively high success of white ash makes it the safest selection for Upper Mississippi Valley clearcut interplantings....
Describes the use and contruction of an inexpensive temperature-gradient incubator.