United States Department of Agriculture
Two computational strategies are exhibited in hand-computing the solution of an elementary system identification problem.
Wind passage was measured over a black spruce canopy, at the surface under the canopy, and in a clearcut strip in a northern Minnesota bog. During a 40-day period wind below the canopy was 10 percent of that above the canopy while the wind in the clearcut strip was 45 percent of the total above the canopy. Wind at the surface of the clearcut strip was of longer...
Limited seed supply and inadequate mineral soil exposure were the principal reasons that a cutover jack pine stand on Grayling sand did not regenerate after prescribed burning. Two years after a similar stand was burned only 30 percent of the part that received no supplemental treatment had 4,000 seedlings per acre or more. Areas that were scarified with no...
The first occurrence in Wisconsin of sapstreak disease of sugar maple is described. The outbreak of the disease was traced to past logging activities. To prevent further disease development, sugar maples should not be cut for a few years in areas contiguos to diseased trees
In 1968 Wisconsin''s forests covered 14.9 million acres of land, a slight decline from the 15.2 million acres reported in 1956. The area of commercial forest land also dropped slightly to 14.5 million acres; increases in the eastern part of the State of 50,000 acres were more than offset by losses of 381,000 acres in the west and central sections.
The impact of "large" parties in the BWCA is discussed in terms of their effect on the resource and on the experience of other visitors. The amount of use by large groups and the visitors most likely to be affected by a reduction in party size limit are described.
Discusses the results of tests to remove bark and needles from spruce and pine branchwood chips that had been previously subjected to micro-organic action in aged storage piles. Various combinations of methods were used to accomplish beneficiation.
Ten years after planting, European larch and red pine diameters averaged 11.2 and 9.6 cm, and heights averaged 9.7 and 5.1 m. Litter on the larch plots was twice as heavy as on the pine and unplanted conrtol plots. Organic carbon content of the top 5 cm of soil appeared to reflect vegetation differences, but soil bulk density did not. The amount of water depleted by...
Much information is available on the specific gravity of wood on a dry weight over green volume and dry weight over dry volume basis. This paper presents the conventional specific gravity on a green weight over green volume basis. The relative specific gravities of bark and wood chips may be helpful in finding way to remove bark particles from chips.
A study of direct seeding black spruce on brushy lowland in north-central Minnesota indicates reduction of vegetation regrowth, rather than seedbed preparation, is the major requirement for success.
A method of describing the crown fuels in a forest fuel complex based on crown weight and crown volume was developed. A computer program is an integral part of the method. Crown weight data are presented in graphical form and are separated into hardwood and coniferous fuels. The fuel complex is described using total crown weight per acre, mean height to the base of...
The third forest survey of Wisconsin showed timber volume reaching 11 billion cubic feet of growing stock in 1968, and increase of about one-third since 1956. The growing stock included 22 million board feet of sawtimber.
Iowa loggers harvested nearly 47 million board feet of saw logs in 1969. Leading species were soft maple, elm, red oak, and cottonwood. Three-fifths of the wood residue generated at 63 Iowa sawmills was not used.
Missouri roundwood production was 123.5 million cubic feet in 1969--96% hardwoods and 4% softwoods. Of this total, over half was saw logs, 1/8 was charcoal wood, and 7% was cooperage logs. Most logging is centered in and adjacent to the Eastern Ozark Region.
Describes a method for relating forest inventory volumes to transport distances and costs. The process, originally developed in Sweden, includes a computer program that can be used to summarize volumes by transport costs per cord to specified delivery point. The method has many potential applications in all aspects of resource analysis.
Ridge and coulee terrain has little effect on point rainfall, but snowpack accumulation is affected by degree of slope and aspect. North slopes accumulate about 50% more snow. Soil water depletion is little affected by aspect. South slopes receive more insulation than north slopes, but temperature differences are slight and may result more from wind differences than...
Contains 25 technical papers on the aspen resource and its potential, inventory projections, economics, wood and fiber products, silvics and ecology, diseases and insects, growth and yield, and various aspects of management in the Lake States and Canada.
Presents the weights and the centers of gravity for the green trees and boles of balsam fir, white spruce, and red pine for use in the design of harvesting equipment.
Equations for predicting red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) site index from various internode lengths were developed from ring counts on sectioned trees form 69 natural stands in Minnesota. The precision of estimating site index was much improved by measuring the 5-year growth intercept beginning at 7 feet above the ground rather than at the conventional breast height....
Aspen growing stock inventories for nine Lake States forest survey units were updated to the common base year of 1968. Cut and inventory were projected to the year 2000 under three sets of assumptions. Potential shortages were found in northeastern Wisconsin and Michigan if historical trends continue.