United States Department of Agriculture
Discusses case study results of debarking whole-tree aspen and red oak chips produced with a whole-tree chipper. The results indicate promise for successful bark removal after chipping and strengthen the argument for continued research.
Describes a method for measuring pulpwood that involves photographing loads on trucks
Examines aspects of precipitation-hours per unit time. Presents nationwide patterns of mean precipitation-hours per month as well as precipitation-hours per precipitation-day.
The 17,000 acre McCormick tract, nestled in the Michigamme Highlands of Michigan`s Upper Peninsula, has rested quietly since the white pine loggers broke camp 70 years ago. The few occasional visitors have been hikers, fishermen, hunters, and trappers, who left little imprint on the land. The roads that eventually dissected the surrounding area never penetrated here....
An increase in forest utilization can be brought about by chipping logging residues or whole trees in the woods and removing the bark and foliage later. Because portable whole-tree chippers are now commercially available, methods must be developed for segregating bark and foliage from the chips. This paper discusses foliage removal results obtained from testing two...
At age six, survival of black walnut trees was not related to latitude of source at six out of eight locations. Trees from as far as 200 miles south of the planting generally grew as large or larger than trees from local or northern sources.
Presents equations and graphs for predicting fire-caused tree mortality and equations for estimating basal wound dimensions for surviving trees. The methods apply to black oak, white oak, and some other species of the oak-hickory forest type.
This paper explains how to calculate and use cost-price as an investment criterion for timber and other forest products. Cost-price is the cost (including a return on invested capital) of producing a unit of output, usually expressed as dollars per cubic foot or other unit of output.
Presents a theoretical method for estimating the mass moments of inertia of full trees and boles about a transverse axis. Estimates from the theoretical model compared closely with experimental data on aspen and red pine trees obtained in the field by the pendulum method. The theoretical method presented may be used to estimate the mass moments of inertia and other...
Despite a long history of research natural area preservation by the USDA Forest Service and other governmental agencies, ecological baseline data have been gathered for few areas. This report presents a framework, including possible sampling schemes for ecological baseline data collection by nonprofessionals working under the consulting supervision of professional...
Presents data on length, width, thickness, moisture content, specific gravity, and terminal velocities of wood and bark chips for eight important pulpwood species. Gives differences in terminal velocities of the wood and bark chips used to predict the degree of segregation possible by air flotation.
The shelterwood system of regeneration with northern hardwoods is a reliable method of obtaining even-age stands of both tolerant and moderately tolerant species. Details of applying the two-cut system are described along with the necessary modifications for encouraging moderately tolerant species.
Presents and compares stand growth and yield information from three single-tree selection cuts, a crop-tree release treatment, an 8-inch diameter limit cut, and an uncut control. Discusses the influence of stand density on basal area growth, cubic volume growth, and board-foot volume growth.
Studies were established in two young shortleaf pine plantations in southern Indiana to determine if thinning would improve growth and yield. Both plantations had been planted at 6- by 6-foot spacing. Plots in the first plantation were thinned to 120, 100, and 80 square feet of basal area at ages 14 and 21. Plots in the second plantation were thinned to 130, 110, 90...
Light, soil moisture, and tree reproduction were measured at five positions in six openings on each of three aspects in southern Illinois. Amount of light received was clearly related to position in the light openings, opening size, and aspect. More moisture was available in the centers of the openings, although 4 years after openings were made the differences...
Site requirements of 25-year-old plantation-grown black walnut on floodplains in southern Illinois were studied. Depth to a gravel layer was the only soil factor that significantly influenced height growth. There was a relationship between internal soil drainage and height growth.
Reports the various applications of prescribed burning in the Lake States during 1971. Presents average costs for each purpose and reasons for cost differences.
This 27th annual report shows 1972 Lake States pulpwood production to be 4.3 million cords, up 7 percent from 1971. Pulpwood harvests increased in all species except pine and tamarack.
Six-year results from two strips clearcut and broadcast burned in a peatland forest indicate that tamarack will be an important component in new stands on such areas if even a few seed-bearing tamaracks are within 3 chains.
Aspect affects soil frost depth by influencing the amount of solar radiation received at the ground or snow surface. Depending on the conditions, frost can be of equal depth on north and south slopes, deeper on north slopes, or deeper on south slopes. Data illustrate all three conditions