United States Department of Agriculture
Illustrates 26 bird habitats occurring in the Ozarks.
Quaking aspen clones expanded over more area, and regenerated greater sucker stem densities and biomass than did bigtooth aspen clones. However, sucker height growth was similar between the two species.
Available information on year-round food habits of white-tailed deer in the Upper Great Lakes Region (UGLR) is summarized. Problems of deer in that region are discussed. There is a need for additional information on year-round diet, but new study techniques must be developed if a complete picture of diet is to be obtained.
Fertilization of poor site black spruce on organic soil with various rates of nitrogen and phosphorus increased height and diameter growth from 2 to 4 times. The growth response declined with time but was still apparent 16 years after fertilization. Shrub biomass and coverage, and nutrient levels of spruce foliage were strongly affected by fertilization.
Analyzes previous visits to a forest and the associated experiences, as well as the expectations of those who had not previously visited a forest. Recommends educational programs that focus on the urban forest.
Presents findings from a study in Michigan's Upper Peninsula to evaluate the effectiveness of unstaffed trail registration stations to obtain recreation use information. Two registration approaches were evaluated: (1) self-issued voluntary registration form, and (2) self-issued mandatory registration form. The paper also cites factors influencing registration...
Reviews opportunities for treatment of timber stands in Minnesota for the decade of 1977-1986. Under the assumptions and management guides specified, 27% of Minnesota's commercial forest land would require timber harvest or some other form of treatment during the decade.
Insolation measured with a precision spectral pyranometer, was recorded near Carterville, Illinois, for 1 year. the pyranometer was tilted at an angle of 25 degrees in summer, 50 degrees in winter, and 37.5 degrees in spring and fall. the insolation measured in winter was found to be significantly larger than the insolation estimated on a horizontal surface.
Live tree biomass estimates are presented for five counties of northeastern Minnesota. Tree biomass is given in green tons for forest types and species groups.
Several methods of calculating machine rates, costs, and productivity for both single pieces of logging equipment and for logging systems are discussed.
Shoot growth and survival of container-grown and 1-0 bare-root English oak (Quercus robur L.) seedlings are reported for a 3-year period after planting in a clearcut. Effects of mulching with black polyethylene are also reported.
Presents information for black walnut seedlings on storage chilling requirement, fall lifting for overwinter storage, spring lifting, planting times, use of root regeneration potential (RRP) to assess physiological quality of planting stock, and relation between RRP at planting and field performance.
Describes an analysis of initial density and subsequent thinning options for red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantations in the Lake States. Results showed that the initial number of established trees per acres has a major impact on the amount and quality of timber product yields, with 200 trees per acre (500/ha) thinned to 120 square feet of basal area per acre (27.5...
Equations are described for estimating crown weights for northern red oak trees. These estimates are for foliage and branchwood weights. Branchwood (wood plus bark) amounts are subdivided by living and dead material into four size groups. Applicability of the equations for other species is examined.
Evaluates the effectiveness of a downtown vest-pocket park in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Short- (5 to 10 years) and long- (15 years) rotation, irrigated and nonirrigated intensive cultures of hybrid poplar were analyzed economically via cash flow analysis. Energy balances we also calculated for each alternative. Nonirrigated systems offer reasonable economic returns whereas irrigated systems do not. All systems produce more energy than they use as...
An efficient Ceramic-Cup Water Collection Instrument (CCWCI, "quickie") is described. Soil water collection from ceramic-cup samplers may require compositing by equal volume from distantly spaced samplers, or simultaneous water collection spaced samplers, or simultaneous water collection from closely spaced samplers without compositing. All collection must...
Calcium cyanamide, a nitrogenous fertilizer, was evaluated in new plantings of black walnut, white ash, and white oak seedlings and 2- and 3-year-old white oak and white ash trees, respectively. Only the growth of black walnut seedlings and white ash trees was improved by CaCN2. Some weeds were controlled by CaCN2, but the amount of weed control was not significantly...
Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various time study methods for determining efficiency and productivity in logging. The work sampling method is compared with the continuous time-study method. Gives the feasibility, capability, and limitation of the work sampling method.
Describes the energy consumption and biological effects of fluorescent, incandescent, and high pressure sodium lighting on the growth of poplars, white spruce, and jack pine in a greenhouse. At similar light levels the biological effects of all three light sources were similar. The incandescent lamps consumed several times more energy than the other two light...