United States Department of Agriculture
Gives an annotated list of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians in 1978 and 1979 in forested wetlands of northern Minnesota. Describes habitat references of vertebrates, relative abundance of bird species, and general management recommendations for wildlife.
Intensively cultured Larix eurolepis at age 9 averaged 7.6 m in height and, depending on the spacing, 2.3 to 6.4 cm in d.b.h. The total stem-branch biomass for all spacing tested (0.1 to 1.5 m2) averaged 67 mt/ha and the mean annual biomass increment 7.4 mt/ha. The "Scotch Plaid" design appears suitable for comparative studies dealing with spacing and...
Describes a study to determine the importance of animals in the spread of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce. Radio telemetry, banding, and color-marking techniques were used to study vectors of this forest pathogen.
Describes the Mack Lake Fire near Mio, Michigan. Few documented wildfires have exceeded its average spread rate (2 mi/h) and energy release rate (8,800 Btu/ft/sec). The extreme behavior resulted from high winds, low humidity, low fuel moisture and jack pine fuels. Horizontal roll vortices may have contributed to the death of one firefighter.
Lake States pulpwood production dipped to 5.52 million cords in 1982. Pulpwood production is shown by county and species group in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin
This paper reports field test results of a wood moisture probe''s accuracy in measuring fuel moisture content of dead roundwood. Probe measurements, corrected for temperature, correlated well with observed fuel moistures of 1-inch dead jack pine branchwood.
Several herbicides -- glyphosate (Roundup), Linuron (Lorox), pronamide (Kerb), and dichlobenil (Casoron) -- controlled weeds in a 1-year-old Populus plantation and did not seriously injure the trees when applied in early spring or late fall. Casoron was most effective but is expensive.
Provides view of the timber supply potential for Michigan during the period 1981-2010. Forest management areas and timber volume statistics are presented for each survey unit in the state.
Summarizes the results of a series of growth room and field studies to develop and evaluate water soaking procedures for improving the establishment of Populus hybrid hardwood cuttings.
Weight and volume information based on regional sampling are provided for red maple in the Lake States. Both green weight and dry weight values are presented for biomass. Volume equations predict total stem volume, volume to 8-inch top, and volume to 4-inch top, inside and outside bark.
The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan shows a 7% decline in commercial forest area and a 27% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Highlights and statistics are presented on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.
We used trees from natural uneven-aged stands in northeastern Minnesota to develop prediction equations to estimate total tree, stem, crown, live and dead branch weight. Presented here are specific gravity and moisture content by d.b.h. and height in tree, as well as bark, sapwood, and heartwood ratios.
The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Wisconsin shows a 2% increase in commercial forest area and a 39% gain in growing-stock volume between 1968 and 1983. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.
A model of species' coefficients are reported for predicting individual tree survival for 10 Lake States species. Tree attributes are diameter growth rate and diameter at breast height. Regional and local performances are summarized.
This paper describes a step-by-step procedure for establishing commercial size intensively cultured plantations of hybrid poplar and summarizes the state-of-knowledge as developed during 10 years of field research at Rhinelander, Wisconsin.
Presents the green weights of the above-stump portion of trees, boles, and residue for red oak, red maple, and white birch in northern Michigan. Estimating equations and green weight tables are included for the tree components of each species.
There are many disadvantages to current techniques for measuring the spread rate of wildland fires. This paper describes the design and use of an electronic timber that resolves most of the problems. The unit is small, lightweight, inexpensive, easy-to-assemble, self-contained, and long-running.
Provides a view of management opportunities of eastern South Dakota commercial forest land during the decade 1980-1989. Discusses harvest, timber stand improvement, and restocking opportunities.
Consumption projections are reported by major species groups in Northern Minnesota for pulpwood used in pulp production and in construction board, fuelwood, and sawtimber from 1980 to 2030. Total consumption of pulpwood could grow between 97% and 116%.
Sawtimber harvesting in northern hardwood stands leaves behind a large amount of residue in the form of tops and limbs. This paper presents typical dimensional characteristics of residue for northern hardwood tops incluting data on lengths, widths, diameters, and complete branch details.