United States Department of Agriculture
Describes and illustrates a technique to mail and store diseased leaf samples to prevent deterioration or damaage.
This paper describes a computer program that calculates National Fire Danger Rating Indexes. fuel moisture, buildup index, and drying factor are also available. The program is written in FORTRAN and is usable on even the smallest compiler.
Compares effeects of various wee-control methods, including hericides, cultivation, and legume cover crop, on tree survival and height growth of 2-year-old hybrid poplars. Cultivation and herbicides singly or in combination gave consistently better results than the other treatment tested.
After five growing seasons on a southwest Missouri outplanting site, trees from a West Virginia eastern redcedar source had better survival, form, vigor, and height growth than trees from eight other sources tested. The local Missouri source, handicapped at planting by an unfavorable top:root ration, is now growing vigorously.
Describes the financial performance of red pine on site index 60, 70, and 80 lands by using new yield evidence and up-to-date cost and revenue assumptions. Best combinations of initial stocking, residual basal area after thinning, an rotation age are identified for two different financial criteria: soil expectation value and internal rate of return.
Herbicides of 17 different rates and formulations were oversprayed on newly planted 1-0 European larch seedlings in teh spring of 1983 at the recommended rates. Simazine, bifenox, oxyfluorfen, promamide, and oryzalin provided adequate weed control with no damage to the larch. Height growth at the end of the first growing season was one-and-a-half times greater in the...
Species coefficients are reported for predicting individual tree survival for nine Lake States species, supplementing a previous report for 10 species. Tree attributes are diameter growth rate and diameter at breast height. Regional and local performances are summarized.
In 1981 wooded strips and windbreaks in Kansas coverd 336,000 acres and were more than 54,000 miles long. Wooded strips contained 300 million board feet of sawtimber and 92 million cubic feet of growing stock.
Two study sites in central Missouri oak-hickory forests were searched for nest sites of cavity nesting birds. Researchers located and measured 133 nests of 11 species. Cavity nesting bird habitat selection is affected by both snag characteristics and vegetation structure.
The growth, development, and sporulation of white pine blister rust cankers were studied on eastern white pine in Wisconsin and Minnesota. Three district canker types were identified on the basis of physical appearance, growth rate, and sporulation. Canker growth rate and sporulation decreased as tree size or age increased, and many cankers apparently became inactive...
A basal stem canker of sugar maple is common on trees in lightly stocked stands and on trees on the north side of roads and other clearings in the Lake States. The cankers are usually elongate, usually encompass about one-fourth of the stem circumference, and face the south. Most cankers originate following logging of old-growth stands on stems that had been present...
Several factors associated with soil freezing complicate the interpretation of neutron probe readings in frozen soil. Temperature is unimportant, but the effect of vertical resolution must be considered. Because of the possibility of both gains and losses of water at the same depth during a period of measurement, interpreting changes in the water content of frozen...
A runoff study in the Driftless Area showed that both total flow and peak rate of flow from a 3-hour, 4-inch rain were strongly affected by the watershed cover. Peak flows ranged from 2.42 inches per hour for alfalfa meadow to 0.010 inch per hour for undisturbed forested watersheds was surprisingly similar.
The technique of growing tree seedlings in plastic greenhouses is being evaluated for red pine, jack pine, white spruce, and yellow birch at the Chittenden Nursery in northern Lower Michigan. Both a long growing season and a normal-length growing season in plastic greenhouses were compared with standard outdoor nursery beds (control). First-year results showed that...
Projected softwood shortages and high costs of mechanized tree planting indicate that more efficient planting equipment and systems are needed. This paper presents cost and productivity data for mechanically planting red pine seelings on a site previously occupied by hardwoods in northern Wisconsin
A 29-year-old test of trees grown from seven white spruce and six Norway spruce seed sources and planted in Wisconsin and Minnesota demonstrates the importance of seed-source selection and indicates that trees from some Norway spruce sources equal or surpass the native white spruce.
Red pine branchlets with and without weevil galls did not differ significantly in production of conelets.
A model is described for estimating total and merchantable tree heights for Lake States tree species. It is intended to be used for compiling forest survey data and in conjunction with growth models for developing projections of tree product yield. Model coefficients are given for 25 species along with fit statistics. Supporting data sets are also described.
The third inventory of the timber resources of Kansas shows a 1.4% increase in commercial forest area and a 42% gain in growing-stock volume between 1965 and 1981. Highlights and statistics are presented on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization and biomass.
Oak forests of the Lake States are described, and guides for appraising sites are presented. Cultural practices to improve the productivity of existing stands and cutting methods to regenerate oak are discussed. The multiple-use potential of oak forests is emphasized.