United States Department of Agriculture
Describes and illustrates a technique to mail and store diseased leaf samples to prevent deterioration or damaage.
Photograph of 17 urban recreation sites in Chicago and Atlanta were evaluated by college students (n = 68) in Illinois, Georgia, and Michigan, for either perceived security, scenic quality, or both. For most raters, high visibility and developed park features significantly enhanced perceived security. Scenic quality, on the other hand, was enhanced for the majority of...
Compares effeects of various wee-control methods, including hericides, cultivation, and legume cover crop, on tree survival and height growth of 2-year-old hybrid poplars. Cultivation and herbicides singly or in combination gave consistently better results than the other treatment tested.
Describes the financial performance of red pine on site index 60, 70, and 80 lands by using new yield evidence and up-to-date cost and revenue assumptions. Best combinations of initial stocking, residual basal area after thinning, an rotation age are identified for two different financial criteria: soil expectation value and internal rate of return.
Herbicides of 17 different rates and formulations were oversprayed on newly planted 1-0 European larch seedlings in teh spring of 1983 at the recommended rates. Simazine, bifenox, oxyfluorfen, promamide, and oryzalin provided adequate weed control with no damage to the larch. Height growth at the end of the first growing season was one-and-a-half times greater in the...
Species coefficients are reported for predicting individual tree survival for nine Lake States species, supplementing a previous report for 10 species. Tree attributes are diameter growth rate and diameter at breast height. Regional and local performances are summarized.
In 1981 wooded strips and windbreaks in Kansas coverd 336,000 acres and were more than 54,000 miles long. Wooded strips contained 300 million board feet of sawtimber and 92 million cubic feet of growing stock.
Two study sites in central Missouri oak-hickory forests were searched for nest sites of cavity nesting birds. Researchers located and measured 133 nests of 11 species. Cavity nesting bird habitat selection is affected by both snag characteristics and vegetation structure.
Projected softwood shortages and high costs of mechanized tree planting indicate that more efficient planting equipment and systems are needed. This paper presents cost and productivity data for mechanically planting red pine seelings on a site previously occupied by hardwoods in northern Wisconsin
Gives an annotated list of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians in 1978 and 1979 in forested wetlands of northern Minnesota. Describes habitat references of vertebrates, relative abundance of bird species, and general management recommendations for wildlife.
Intensively cultured Larix eurolepis at age 9 averaged 7.6 m in height and, depending on the spacing, 2.3 to 6.4 cm in d.b.h. The total stem-branch biomass for all spacing tested (0.1 to 1.5 m2) averaged 67 mt/ha and the mean annual biomass increment 7.4 mt/ha. The "Scotch Plaid" design appears suitable for comparative studies dealing with spacing and...
Describes a study to determine the importance of animals in the spread of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce. Radio telemetry, banding, and color-marking techniques were used to study vectors of this forest pathogen.
Describes the Mack Lake Fire near Mio, Michigan. Few documented wildfires have exceeded its average spread rate (2 mi/h) and energy release rate (8,800 Btu/ft/sec). The extreme behavior resulted from high winds, low humidity, low fuel moisture and jack pine fuels. Horizontal roll vortices may have contributed to the death of one firefighter.
A model is described for estimating total and merchantable tree heights for Lake States tree species. It is intended to be used for compiling forest survey data and in conjunction with growth models for developing projections of tree product yield. Model coefficients are given for 25 species along with fit statistics. Supporting data sets are also described.
Lake States pulpwood production dipped to 5.52 million cords in 1982. Pulpwood production is shown by county and species group in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin
This paper reports field test results of a wood moisture probe''s accuracy in measuring fuel moisture content of dead roundwood. Probe measurements, corrected for temperature, correlated well with observed fuel moistures of 1-inch dead jack pine branchwood.
Several herbicides -- glyphosate (Roundup), Linuron (Lorox), pronamide (Kerb), and dichlobenil (Casoron) -- controlled weeds in a 1-year-old Populus plantation and did not seriously injure the trees when applied in early spring or late fall. Casoron was most effective but is expensive.
Provides view of the timber supply potential for Michigan during the period 1981-2010. Forest management areas and timber volume statistics are presented for each survey unit in the state.
Summarizes the results of a series of growth room and field studies to develop and evaluate water soaking procedures for improving the establishment of Populus hybrid hardwood cuttings.
Weight and volume information based on regional sampling are provided for red maple in the Lake States. Both green weight and dry weight values are presented for biomass. Volume equations predict total stem volume, volume to 8-inch top, and volume to 4-inch top, inside and outside bark.