United States Department of Agriculture
This paper describes and summarizes the macroclimate of the Lake States by defining and mapping homoclimatic zones.
This guide presents a method for determining in advance of final harvest whether reproduction is adequate to reasonably ensure the regeneration of an oak stand in the Missouri Ozarks.
Explains how STEMS simulates tree growth, mortality, management, and regeneration. Discusses input--including user options and tree lists--output, and applications.
A continuous-furrow, bareroot-stock, mechanical planter was used to plant red pine tree seedlings on five sites in northern Michigan. Several indicators of planting efficiency were analyzed including utilization of the available land area, productivity as related to site conditions and planting pattern, cost, and effectiveness of the V-blade.
The third forest resource inventory of eastern South Dakota showed a 31% decline in commercial forest area and 42% loss in growing-stock volume between 1965 and 1980.
The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan shows growing-stock volume increased 27% between 1966 and 1980, from 15.1 to 19.1 billion cubic feet. Presented are highlights and statistics on volume, growth, mortality, removals, biomass, and projections.
Discusses and analyzes the 1981 Wisconsin fuelwood production from roundwood and primary wood-using mill residue. Analyzes production by geographic area, type of producer, species, landowner class, type of land, and tree source.
Shows 1980 veneer-log production and receipts by species in the Lake State (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) and in the Central States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri). Comparisons are made with similar data collected in 1976. Includes tables showing veneer-log production and receipts (for selected years) since 1946 in the Lake States and since 1956 in the...
The 1982 forest inventory of Nebraska showed that 1.5 percent of the total land area is forested. Commercial forest land accounted for 75 percent or 537,837 acres of the forest land and ponderosa pine is the major forest type. An important Nebraska resouce is the 262,230 acres of natural wooded strips.
Good plantation establishment techniques along with fast growing clones result in minimal deer damage to hybrid poplar plantations. Although deer prefer certain clones, as food becomes scarce they eventually browse all clones. With proper establishment trees grow to or beyond the reach of browsing deer in the first year and well beyond in the second. Poorly...
Presents statistics on Nebraska''s growing-stock and sawtimber volumes by county for 1983. Includes map showing growing-stock volume distribution by county.
An experiment using auger cutters to remove single limbs from six species showed that torque required depends on species and relative cutter rotation direction and that all species require 2 horsepower or less per inch width of cut using 2 1/2-inch-diameter cutters
Reviews treatment opportunities for timber stands in Kansas from 1982 to 1991. Under the assumptions and management guides specified, 45% of Kansas' commercial forest land would benefit from timber harvest or some other form of treatment during the decade.
This summary of the white spruce literature covers the structure, site relations, population dynamics, and cultural practices applicable to established plantations in the Lake States. The objective of this paper is to assemble and organize all information relevant to the silviculture, growth, and yield of white spruce plantations in the Lake States .
A survey of 142 fire-weather stations in the Northeastern United States showed that, although maintenance was generally satisfactory, calibration or testing of anemometers was virtually nonexistent. We tested these anemometers using portable equipment that we designed and found the deviations from true wind speed.
Computer simulation was used to identify possible areas for improving the design and operation of feller/bunchers for thinning closely spaced plantations. Some of the variables considered were average stand diameter, tree spacing, thinning pattern, operational machine speeds, and shear head accumulating capacity.
The modifier function used in STEMS (Stand and Tree Evaluation and Modeling System) mathematically represents the effect that the surrounding forest community has on the growth of an individual tree. This paper 1) develops the most recent modifier function, 2) discusses its form, 3) reports the results of the analysis with biological considerations and 4) evaluates the...
Presents the green weights of the above-stump portions of trees, boles, and residue for eight tree species in northern Michigan. Estimating equations and weight tables are presented for the tree components of each species.
Describes the tables derived from the 1980 Forest Survey of Michigan and presents ways the tables can be used. These tables are broken down according to Michigan's four Forest Survey Units, 14 forest types, and 5 site-index classes.
Describes the results of pilot testing a new wildfire effects appraisal system in Wisconsin.