United States Department of Agriculture
Reports the results of a survey of operational prescribed burns in Minnesota and Wisconsin during 1969.
Describes the weather patterns in northern Minnesota as related to prescribed burning. The prevailing wind direction, average wind speed, most persistent wind direction, and average Buildup Index are considered in making recommendations.
Describes the growth and yield relationship of Minnesota black spruce to site index, age, and basal area density based on multiple regression analysis.
Presents site-index comparisons for the following forest species in northern Minnesota: quaking aspen, paper birch, basswood, red oak, black ash, jack pine, red pine, white pine, white spruce, black spruce, balsam fir, white-cedar, and tamarack. Shows site-index relationships among these species by using site-index ratios and species-comparison graphs.
From a study of campground use in 1967 and 1968 relationships were determined between the intensity of use and 74 onsite and location characteristics. Campers were interviewed to learn what factors influenced their choice of a particular campground. Recommendations to management and topics for further research are discussed.
Soil water storage in a 7.5 foot profile varied nearly 100 percent (7.9 to 15.5 inches) among four mineral soils ranging from a sand to sandy loam. Bulk density, size fractions, and four water retention values are tabulated for each horizon.
This twenty-third annual report shows that the 1968 Lake States pulpwood output dropped to about 3 1/2 million cords from about 4 million cords in 1967. Michigan's roundwood harvest dropped 198,000 cords in 1968, while the Wisconsin and Minnesota harvests each fell more than 125,000 cords. Pulpwood receipts fell 1/2 million cords below the 1967 level in...
Summaries of total and merchantable stand data from 34 permanent sample plots were used to derive equations for predicting present and future stand volumes. Equations are presented for predicting total cubic-foot volume, ratio of merchantable volume to total volume, and future stand diameter, heights, and basal area. Yield tables are given for total stand volume and...
Aerial observations and radio tracking showed that wolves had ranges of 43 to 1,000 square miles. Kill rate during usual winters was one deer per wolf per 18 days, but harsher winters allowed increased kill. Wolf-killed deer generally were older and had more abnormalities than hunter-killed deer.
Summarizes the best available seed source recommendations for the major species used in planting programs in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan
The growth, development, and sporulation of white pine blister rust cankers were studied on eastern white pine in Wisconsin and Minnesota. Three district canker types were identified on the basis of physical appearance, growth rate, and sporulation. Canker growth rate and sporulation decreased as tree size or age increased, and many cankers apparently became inactive...
A 29-year-old test of trees grown from seven white spruce and six Norway spruce seed sources and planted in Wisconsin and Minnesota demonstrates the importance of seed-source selection and indicates that trees from some Norway spruce sources equal or surpass the native white spruce.
This 25th annual reports shows that 1970 Lake Sates pulpwood production rose to over 4? million cords. Output increased 206,000 cords in Wisconsin, 104,000 cords in Michigan, and 32,000 cords in Minnesota. Birch pulpwood harvesting has increased rapidly since 1967.
Thinning 37-year-old aspen in north central Minnesota did not increase either total volume production or the number of veneer-sized trees after 10 years. Thinning is not recommended for stands nearing rotation age.
Important physical characteristics, such as water retention, water yield coefficient, and hydraulic conductivity, vary greatly for representative northern Minnesota peat materials. The differences are related to the degree of decomposition, which largely determines the porosity and pore size distribution. Fiber content (> 0.1 mm) and bulk density are properties...
Runoff was measured on four forested bog watersheds in northern Minnesota for 5 years. The experimental basins ranged in size from 24 to 130 acres and included both organic and mineral soils. Annual runoff was not evenly distributed. Spring runoff, from the beginning of flow in late March to the 1 st of June, accounted for 66 % of total annual water yield. Summer and...