United States Department of Agriculture
The fourth Minnesota Forest Inventory shows that aspen continues to dominate the State's forests. Thirty-nine percent of Minnesota's commercial forest area is in the aspen forest type. Aspen species accounted for the largest portion of growing-stock inventory, net annual growth, and removals.
Reviews opportunities for treatment of timber stands in Minnesota for the decade of 1977-1986. Under the assumptions and management guides specified, 27% of Minnesota's commercial forest land would require timber harvest or some other form of treatment during the decade.
Contains 16 papers presented at the 1980 Minnesota Forest Resource Inventory Conferences.
Live tree biomass estimates are presented for five counties of northeastern Minnesota. Tree biomass is given in green tons for forest types and species groups.
Describes the weather patterns in northern Minnesota as related to prescribed burning. The prevailing wind direction, average wind speed, most persistent wind direction, and average Buildup Index are considered in making recommendations.
Biomass prediction equations were developed for some common ground cover plants from forest communities of northeastern Minnesota. The allometric function was used to predict biomass (dry weight) with ocular estimates of percent ground cover of the plant as the independent variable.
Fertilization of poor site black spruce on organic soil with various rates of nitrogen and phosphorus increased height and diameter growth from 2 to 4 times. The growth response declined with time but was still apparent 16 years after fertilization. Shrub biomass and coverage, and nutrient levels of spruce foliage were strongly affected by fertilization.
Soil water storage in a 7.5 foot profile varied nearly 100 percent (7.9 to 15.5 inches) among four mineral soils ranging from a sand to sandy loam. Bulk density, size fractions, and four water retention values are tabulated for each horizon.
This twenty-third annual report shows that the 1968 Lake States pulpwood output dropped to about 3 1/2 million cords from about 4 million cords in 1967. Michigan's roundwood harvest dropped 198,000 cords in 1968, while the Wisconsin and Minnesota harvests each fell more than 125,000 cords. Pulpwood receipts fell 1/2 million cords below the 1967 level in...
Measurements of lake and impoundment pH for several years, intensive sampling within years, and pH-calcium plots verify normal pH levels and do not show evidence of changes due to acid precipitation. These data in comparison with general lake data narrow the northern Lake States area in which rain or snow may cause lake acidification.
Describes the design and creation of two databases using data from a unit of the fourth Minnesota Forest Inventory, and analyzes the cost-effectiveness of each.
Pulpwood production in the Lake States -- Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin -- advanced to 5.66 million cords in 1980. Pulpwood production is shown by county and species group for these three states
The growth, development, and sporulation of white pine blister rust cankers were studied on eastern white pine in Wisconsin and Minnesota. Three district canker types were identified on the basis of physical appearance, growth rate, and sporulation. Canker growth rate and sporulation decreased as tree size or age increased, and many cankers apparently became inactive...
A 29-year-old test of trees grown from seven white spruce and six Norway spruce seed sources and planted in Wisconsin and Minnesota demonstrates the importance of seed-source selection and indicates that trees from some Norway spruce sources equal or surpass the native white spruce.
Important physical characteristics, such as water retention, water yield coefficient, and hydraulic conductivity, vary greatly for representative northern Minnesota peat materials. The differences are related to the degree of decomposition, which largely determines the porosity and pore size distribution. Fiber content (> 0.1 mm) and bulk density are properties...
Summer moisture contents and factors for converting fresh plant weights to ovendry weights were determined for selected herbs, ferns, and small shrubs commonly found on upland sites in northern Lower Michigan. Sampling was done weekly from mid-June through early September 1978, following the period of major plant growth. Average summer moisture contents range from...
Runoff was measured on four forested bog watersheds in northern Minnesota for 5 years. The experimental basins ranged in size from 24 to 130 acres and included both organic and mineral soils. Annual runoff was not evenly distributed. Spring runoff, from the beginning of flow in late March to the 1 st of June, accounted for 66 % of total annual water yield. Summer and...