United States Department of Agriculture
In 1983 the fourth Wisconsin forest inventory found 14.8 million timberland acres of which 622.3 thousand acres (4%) were classified as plantations. This bulletin presents analysis and statistics of area, volume, growth, and mortality.
Describes an index based on attributes of fish assemblages that has proven effective in assessing biotic integrity and environmental health in intermediate-sized, warmwater (i.e., too warm for salmonids) streams and rivers of Wisconsin. Provides detailed guidelines for applying this index.
Knowing the frequency of good seed crops is important in regenerating northern hardwood species, particularly those that require site preparation and special cutting methods. It is also desirable to know the maximum time that might be expected between poor crops to help schedule silvicultural treatment or supplemental seeding.
Soil temperature was measured for a year on a southeast-facing slope of 25 percent, latitude 43 degrees 50 minutes N. The spring-summer cover was unmowed alfalfa-bluegrass meadow, the fall-winter cover, meadow stubble. Snow cover was light or absent. The soil was Fayette silt loam, valley phase. The annual temperature wave at all depths followed the air temperature...
Pulpwood production in the Lake States increased to 8.6 million cords in 1991. Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin pulpwood production is shown by county and specias group.
Here is evidence from an actual hardwood stand on the Argonne Experimental Forest in northeastern Wisconsin that even-age management works.
More than 54 million board feet of veneer logs where cut in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin in 1965, the largest cut since 1956. Oak showed the greatest increase. Eighty-seven percent of the total went for wall panels, doors, etc. The rest went into containers
Lake States pulpwood production dropped to 8.4 million cords in 1990. Central States pulpwood production dropped by 6%--from 396 thousand cords in 1989 to 374 thousand cords in 1990. Pulpwood production is shown by county and species group for Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana.
The eastern hemlock type is declining in area faster than any other. Growing-stock volume, for example, declined 71 percent in only 20 years in Michigan, and has declined similarly in Wisconsin. Many land management agencies have stopped cutting hemlock until satisfactory regeneration can be assured.
Northern red oak is extremely difficult to regenerate, although it has produced good acorn crops nearly half of the last 32 years in northern Wisconsin. Field trials have shown that for successful seeding, you must protect acorns from predation by wildlife and sow them when temperatures are most favorable for germination.
Maple decline (i.e. maple blight, maple dieback) has periodically caused significant losses of sugar maple in northern hardwood forests. The first major outbreak of maple decline was reported in northeastern Wisconsin and upper Michigan in the late 1950's. The disease reappeared in the same general area during the late 1970's and early 1980's.
The yellow-bellied sapsucker is a migratory woodpecker that feeds on a wide variety of orchard, shade, and forest trees. Instead of drilling holes to find insects like other woodpeckers, sapsuckers drill holes in living trees to feed on sap and phloem tissues. Yellow and paper birches are their favorite summer food sources on their nesting grounds in Upper Michigan and...
Tropical forests have always been sources for prized timbers, rubber, tannin, and other forest products for use worldwide. However, with the recent concern regarding global change, the importance of effective forest products management and utilization has increased significantly. The USDA Forest Service's Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, Wisconsin, has...
Sapstreak is a fatal disease of sugar maple that usually enters the tree through basal trunk scars or root wounds. The disease most often affects large, wounded trees left after logging. The fungus causing sapstreak readily infects stumps or cut logs during the summer months. So, wounding sugar maples during this time will increase the potential for disease spread. In...