United States Department of Agriculture
White fir and red fir seed collected over a 2-month period in northern California was tested for germination of fresh and stratified seed. Ratio of embryo length to embryo cavity length was found to be the most useful index of seed maturity for white and red fir. Cone specific gravity also was correlated with nearly all measures of seed germination. Data suggest that...
In red pine or aspen stands only two soil samples were needed to estimate (+/- 10%, 95% confidence) pH, bulk density, or sand, but 25 to 60 samples were required to estimate N, P, K, Ca, Mg, available water, or silt + clay. To estimate most forest floor properties required 30 to 50 samples in red pine stands, but only about half as many in aspen stands.
Red pine seedlings were grown in nine different soil media and in two types of containers in a greenhouse. Growth differed significantly among the media after 16 weeks, with the largest seedlings produced in a peat-vermiculite mix
Careless planting was found to be the most important of several possible causes of excessive mortality of newly planted red pine. Distribution procedures and high shoot/root ratios were also implicated.
Fertilization resulted in increased height and top weight of red pine seedlings by the end of the second growing season, but also resulted in considerable seedling mortality. A high level of watering also increased seedling growth but to a much less extent than fertilization. Fertilization of 1-year-old seedlings resulted in dramatic changes in their chemical...
Tests showed that picloram/2,4-D mixture was equal to or superior to 2,4-D alone or a 2,4,5-D/2,4,5-T mixture in controlling hazel, aspen suckers, and mountain maple for reforestation purposes. Survival of red pine planted 9 months after treatment was not influenced by residual soil effects of picloram. However, foliar application contributed to mortality of...
Observations on sound propagation were made in two red pine plantations. Measurements were taken of attenuation of prerecorded frequencies at various distances from the sound source. Sound absorption was strongly dependent on frequencies. Peak absorption was at 500 Hz.
The potential damage of the Saratoga spittlebug to red pine can be predicted by comparing the percentage of ground occupied by sweet-fern with the percentage of ground cover occupied by other nymphal host plants. A risk-rating graph is used to estimate potential damage.
Presents site-index comparisons for the following forest species in northern Minnesota: quaking aspen, paper birch, basswood, red oak, black ash, jack pine, red pine, white pine, white spruce, black spruce, balsam fir, white-cedar, and tamarack. Shows site-index relationships among these species by using site-index ratios and species-comparison graphs.